Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

arba kitaip - ekologija

Moderatorius: Prižiūrėtojai

Standartinė Laimis Ket 2007 04 19, 11:58

Statyba iš šiaudų briketų (kytkų):
http://blogas.lt/siaudunamai
Laimis
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 318
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:23

Standartinė ** Šeš 2007 04 28, 18:10

Keletas gerų straipsnių (lietuviškai ! :)) apie GMO iš technologijos.lt


Genetiškai modifikuoti organizmai. Pirma dalis: nuo senovinės selekcijos iki genetinių "stebuklų"
http://www.technologijos.lt/archyvas/ga ... dalis/view


Genetiškai modifikuoti organizmai. Antra dalis: "ne viskas auksas, kas auksu žiba..."
http://www.technologijos.lt/archyvas/ga ... dalis/view


Genetiškai modifikuoti organizmai. Trečia dalis: UŽ ir PRIEŠ
http://www.technologijos.lt/archyvas/ga ... mo_3_dalis



Čia yra straipsnelis apie tą patį Jermakovos tyrimą

Genetically modified soy affects posterity: Results of Russian scientists’ studies
(ГМ-соя влияет на потомство: Результаты исследования российских ученых)
http://www.regnum.ru/english/526651.html

Irinos Jermakovos asmeninis puslapis, yra nuorodos į jos straipsnius:
http://irina-ermakova.by.ru/index.htm



dar keletas straipsnių

Genų loterija. Be pralaimėjimų?
http://www.animalrights.lt/117


Apie GM kitu kampu. visai nieko straipsnelis apie GMO kompanijų įtaką, truputį sąmokslininkiškas, bet visai smagiai skaitėsi.
Генетическая Афера - инструмент контроля над миром
http://www.contr-tv.ru/manipulation/1096/


http://ekoblogas.wordpress.com/2007/02/ ... d/#respond labai patiko ta moteriškė iš Indijos filmukuose.
Paskutinį kartą redagavo ** Tre 2007 05 09, 0:05. Iš viso redaguota 2 kartus.
**
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Standartinė ** Šeš 2007 04 28, 18:21

Straipsnis iš "Žaliosios Lietuvos"

Mokslininkė genetiškai modifikuotus produktus prilygina genocidui

Iki šiol mokslininkai negali pasakyti ar genetiškai modifikuoti produktai pavojingi žmogui. Rekalingi rimti ir nepriklausomi tyrimai. Bet “Frankenšteino maistas” ypač pelningas galingoms kompanijoms, o rasti priemonių jį ištirti – labai sudėtinga.
Su šia problema susidūrė ir Rusijos mokslininkai, tarp jų ir RAN instituto mokslinė bendradarbė Irina Jermakova. Ji atliko keletą eksperimentų su žiurkėmis, bet užbaigti juos mokslininkei neleido – nutraukė finansavimą. Tačiau netgi tie rezultatai, kuriuos ji gavo, šokiravo ne tik ją pačią, bet ir viso pasaulio mokslininkus.
Apie šiuos sensacingus tyrimus Irina Jermakova papasakojo savo interviu laikraščiui “MK”.


Kodėl genetiškai modifikuoti (GM) maisto produktai gali būti pavojingi?

Visų pirma, po intervencijos proceso metu gali mutuoti net tik įterpti genai, bet ir visas augalo genomas.
Antra, GM augaluose gali atsirasti nežinomi toksiniai baltymai, todėl GM maistas gali sukelti toksikozę arba alergiją. Fantastiniai pasakojimai apie tai, kaip po genetinių manipuliacijų atsiradę augalai žmonėms atima regėjimą, gali virsti realybe jau šiandien.
Trečia, metodai, kuriais įterpiami svetimi genai, yra neišbaigti ir negarantuoja transgeninių augalų saugumo. Egzistuoja du plačiausiai naudojami metodai. Pirmasis – ląstelių apšaudymas volframo arba aukso dulkėmis, ant kurių užnešami transgenai. Šiuo atveju nežinoma, kiek naujų genų ir kuriose genomo vietose įsitvirtina.
Antrasis metodas (dažniau naudojamas ir labiau pavojingas) – genų įterpimas plazmidėmis, kurios paimtos iš vienos dirvožemio bakterijos. Vokiečių mokslininkai įrodė, kad šeriant įvairius gyvūnus GM maistu šios plazmidės patenka į įvairių vidaus organų ląsteles. Prieš pradėdama savo tyrimus aš irgi dariau prielaidą, kad plazmidės iš GM augalų su maistu patenka į mūsų organizmą – kraują, skrandį, spermą ir t.t., iššaukdamos fiziologinius pakitimus, mutacijas ir reprodukcinės funkcijos pažeidimus.

Jums buvo svarbu padaryti tyrimus būtent su gyvūnais?

Taip. Testais, kuriais dabar tiria GM augalus, nustatyti ar jie pavojingi žmonėms – neįmanoma. Bet kada gyvūnai maitinami GM maistu, rezultatus pamatyti galima labai greitai, taip pat išsiaiškinti ar gyvūnams ims sirgti, ar pakinta jo reprodukcinės funkcijos, elegesys ir t.t.

O kodėl būtent žiurkės? Juk kai kurie mokslininkai dabar tvirtina, kad žiurkė ir žmogus – du dideli skirtumai.

Ne, tyrimai kaip tik parodė, kad žmonės genetiškai labai mažai skiriasi, pavyzdžiui, nuo pelių, nei manyta anksčiau. Nors neturime uodegų, pagal organizmo sandarą ir biochemiją mes labai artimi žiurkėms. Žiurkė – labai patogus gyvūnas tyrimams – nereikli, nebrangi... Tiesa, mano darbų finansavimą labai gretai nutraukė. Kai tik aš pradėjau juos, institutas patyrė labai didelį spaudimą iš GM produktų gamintojų lobistų pusės. Man rekomendavo tuo neužsiiminėti. Net pavadinimo mūsų instituto, kuriame aš dirbau, vadovybė prašo neminėti interviu žurnalistams.

Kaip tas spaudimas pasireiškė?

Kaip man pasakė du akademikai, GM produktų lobistai kreipėsi į instituto prezidiumą, reikalaudami nutraukti tyrimus. Kadangi... dabar toks didelis transgeninių produktų srautas į rinką, kad nieko jau negalima padaryti ir nereikia gąsdinti žmonių. Jų pozicija tokia: nuodykitės, o mes stovėsime nuošaly.
Bet dabar, tikriausiai, bus viskas kitaip: Maksvos meras Jurijus Lužkovas asmeniškai ėmėsi rūpintis lėšų skyrimu Jūsų eksperimento pratęsimui.

Lėšos jau skirtos, bet mūsų institutas nuo šios temos “atsižegnojo”. Dabar tyrimai bus tęsiami kituose institutuose ir atlikinėsiu juos ne tik aš, bet ir kiti mokslininkai – dėkui Dievui, norintieji atsirado. Tuo tarpu Nacionalinė genetinės saugos asociacija paskelbė apie rengiamą pirmąjį pasaulyje viešą eksperimentą. Labai svarbu visas reikalingas priemones surinkti iš nepriklausomų šaltinių, kad niekas negalėtų mūsų įtarti neobjektyvumu. Eksperimentas bus filmuojamas ir transliuojamas tiesioginiame eteryje, tuo jis primins dabar televizijose populiarius “realybės šou”.
Pinigai reikalingi tam, kad paruošti patalpą, įrengti videokameras, paruošti žmones.
Savo tyrimams aš jau išleidau visas asmenines santaupas, dar mane finnasiškai parėmė viena moteris. Dėka to, aš sugebėjau gauti rezultatus, apie kuriuos kalbama visame pasaulyje. Nuorodos į juos patapintos 40 000 interneto tinklalapių. Apie juos rašo Anglijoje, JAV, Australijoje ir kitose šalyse. Mane kvietė skaityti pranešimus į Japoniją.
GM augalų poveikio gyviesiems organizmas tyrimas – milžiniška mokslinė problema, kurią biotechnologai, dėl didelio asmeninio suinteresuotumo, nėra pajėgūs išspręsti. Be to, tokius tyrimus turi atlikinėti mokslininkų kolektyvai, nepriklausomi nuo kompanijų, kuriančių genetiškai modifikuotus organizmus (GMO), finansavimo.

Tai sudėtinga padaryti?

Ne. Bet, deja, vyksta kažkas nesuprantamo. Aš gavau labai daug laiškų iš įvairiausių pasaulio kampelių. Ir visi prisipažįsta, kad pas juos atlikti nepriklausomus tyrimus – neįmanoma. Pavyzdžiui, Austrijos mokslininkas parašė: “Aš numatau, kad gavusi tokius rezultatus, Jūs susidursite su Vakarų kompanijų interesais. Atsiras autoritetingų mokslininkų “kompetetinga” nuomonė, paneigsianti Jūsų tyrimus. Jūsų rezultatus ignoruos, Jums trukdys daryti naujus eksperimetus”.
Arba štai kolegės iš Australijos istorija. Ji kreipėsi į savo šalies vyriausybę, prašydama pakartoti mano eksperimentus su žiurkėmis. Po to pasipylė lavina užsakomųjų straipsnių, smerkiančių jos sumanymą, o pačią vyriausybę pradėjo spausti GM produktų lobistai.
Įdomų laišką gavau iš Olandijos. Pirmiausia jie man parašė: “Mes Jumis netikime”. Aš atsakiau: “Tai labai nemoksliška – tikėti arba netikėti. Jūs galite patikrinti.”. Po kelių mėnesių vienas iš tų olandų parašė: “Nei aš, nei mano kolegos Anglijoje, nežino, kad kur nors būtų atlikti panašūs eksperimetai. To reikėjo tikėtis. Tyrimai atliekami iš anksto žinant rezultatus. Vienintelė saugi išeitis mokslininkams – užmerkti akis ir nematyti to, kas vyksta su GMO. Šiuos žmones valdo blogio jėgos. Tęskite savo darbus. Galbūt, mes vis dėlto pasieksime pergalę!”
Problema tame, kad tokiems tyrimams praktiškai neįmanoma gauti finansavimą. Bet netgi jeigu pavyksta juos atlikti, jų rezultatus neįmanoma publikuoti moksliniuose leidiniuose, tam, kad jie būtų pripažinti. Kompanijos atsisako duoti genetiškai modifikuotos medžiagos tyrimams ir mainais reikalauja pilnos eksperimentų kontrolės. Kuomet ūkininkai iš kompanijos perka genetiškai modifikuotas sėklas, jie pasirašo sutartį, kurioje numatyta, kad draudžiama tas sėklas atiduoti moksliniams tyrimams.
Tarp kitko, labai dažnai genetiškai modifikuotų augalų sėklos būna nedaigios ir ūkininkai būna pirversti jas vėl pirkti iš tų pačių kompanijų. Indijoje dėl to netgi padaugėjo savižudybių. Ūkininkams buvo parduodamos sumaišytos sėklos (tradicinės ir genetiškai modifikuotos). Jau po dviejų metų jie negalėdavo gauti derliaus: sėklos nedygo. Netgi normalūs augalai dėl kryžminimosi su genetiškai modifikuotais tapo nevaisingais. Esant tokiai situacijai, transgeninių sėklų kūrėjai gali sukelti badą bet kuriame pasaulio kampelyje, paprasčiausiai atsisakius parduoti GM sėklas tai šaliai.
Savo laiku gigantiška GM kultūrų gamintoja kompanija “Monsanto” pareiškė, kad per 10-15 metų visos sėklos mūsų planetoje bus transgeninės.

Papasakokite apie savo eksperimentus plačiau.

Nieko naujo aš neišradau. Daugelyje GM produktų tikrinimo metodikų parašyta, kaip juos reikia tikrinti. Nors kai kurie GMO gamintojai ir atlieka tyrimus su žiurkėmis, maitina jas labai gudriai – pateles GM pašaru pradeda šerti tik po to, kai jos jau nėščios ir embrionai nuo neigiamo poveikio yra apsaugoti motinos organizmo. Tačiau jeigu žiurkes maitintume iki jų poravimosi ir tęstume tai iki kol motinos baigs matinti savo jauniklius, neigiamo poveikio tikimybė labai išauga. Kompanijoms, kurios atlieka panašius eksperimentus, neigiami rezultatai nenaudingi. Turimais duomenimis, iš 500 mokslininkų, dirbančių biotechnologijų srityje Didžiojoje Britanijoje, 30 proc. buvo priversti pakeisti savo parodymus, dėl jų tyrimų rėmėjų spaudimo.
...Aš atlikau keletą serijų eksperimentų. Pagrinde mes tyrėme fiziologinę būklę ir jauniklių mirtingumą pirmojoje ir antrojoje kartoje. Pirmame bloke mes tyrėme 30 patelių, kurias padalinome į 4 grupes. Pirmajai grupei kartu su įprastu maistu duodavome GM sojos miltų. Antros grupės žiurkėms duodavome su pašaru duodavome nemodifikuotos sojos. Trečią grupę šėrėme tik GM soja, o ketvirtoji grupė (kontrolinė) maitinosi įprastu pašaru be priedų.
Žiurkes aš maitinau iki poravimosi ir jų poravimosi metu, taip pat esant nėštumui ir laktacijos periodui. Iš viso gimė 221 jauniklis. Negatyvų rezultatą (aš nesitikėjau, kad viskas bus taip blogai!) mes gavome grupėje “GM soja”. Daugiau nei pusė žiurkiukų (51,6 proc.) iš pirmosios kartos mirė per pirmąsias tris savaites, likusios gyvos buvo 1,5-2 kartus mažesnės, nei žiurkiukai iš kontrolinės grupės. Jie buvo nusilpę ir neišsivystę.
Įdomu tai, kad netgi grupėje “Paprasta soja” pasireiškė žiurkiukų svorio sumažėjimas, nors, baltymingas pašaras turėtų duoti atvirkštinį rezultatą. Kuomet mes suporavome likusias gyvas žiurkes iš grupės “GM soja”, antros kartos palikuonių jau negavome. Kai kurias pateles iš grupės “GM soja” suporavus su sveikais patinais, palikuonių buvo, bet tik labai nusilpusių.
Kita serija eksperimentų mes tyrėme GM soja šertų žiurkių vidaus organų pakitimus. Rimtus patologinius pakitimus mes aptikome kepenyse (jos buvo kaip rėtis) ir patinų sėklidėse (jos pamėlynavo). Reikėjo dar ištirti širdį, smegenis, liaukas ir kitus organus, bet mes nesuspėjome. Aš netgi negalvojau, kad gauti rezultatai iššaukš tokią diskusijų audrą. Bet dar keisčiau, kad per pusantrų metų (nuo 2005) šiuos tyrimus tai niekas ir nepakartojo. Dabar aš atlikau naują seriją tyrimų, pagrinde už savo pinigus.

Rezultatai jau yra?

Duomenys dar apdorojami, tačiau jau dabar galiu pasakyti, kad pirmojo eksperimento su žiurkėmis rezultatai pasitvirtino. Šie pakartotiniai tyrimai buvo reikalingi ir tam, kad paneigti teorija, jog neigiamas poveikis atsirado dėl herbicidų, buvusių GM maiste. Laikoma, kad transgeninėje sojoje, kuri atspari herbicidui (būtent tokią soją aš ir tyriau), pastarasis gali kauptis joje ir neigiamai paveikti embrionus. Todėl aš truputį pakeičiau žiurkių maitinimo schemą: maitinau GM soja tik likus dviems savaitėms iki žiukių poravimosi ir 2-3 dienas poravimosi metu, o nėštumo ir laktacijos metu sojos nedaviau. Rezultatai buvo tokie pat kaip ir anksčiau. Grupėje “GM soja” jauniklių mirtingumas buvo didesnis nei 50 proc. ir labai daug neišsivysčiusių žiurkiukų.

Jūs nebijote atlikinėti tokius eksperimentus?

Manęs dažnai to klausia. O ką daryti? Kitos išeities nėra. Neužsiminėti šia problema aš negaliu. Mes neįvertiname GMO pavojingu ir jeigu dabar nežengsime ryžtingų žingsnių, rytoj jau bus per vėlu. Šiuo metu kelias tik vienas: tyrinėti, įrodynėti ir imtis žmonių ir gamtos apsaugos priemonių. Ir daryti tai reikia greičiau. Būsiu dėkinga visiems, kurie palaikys pirmojo viešo eksperimento pradžią, tyrinėjant GM produktų poveikį.

Parengta pagal Jekaterinos Pičuginos straipsnį (“MK”, 2007 m. sausio 26 d.). Iš rusų kalbos vertė A.Gaidamavičius

Nuotraukoje:

Rusijos Neurofiziologijos instituto mokslininkų atliktas tyrimas parodė, kad genetiškai modifikuoto maisto vartojimas gali atsiliepti ne tiek mums, kiek mūsų palikuonims. Nuotraukoje pavaizduotos dvi dviejų savaičių amžiaus žiurkės, kurių vienos motina buvo maitinami paprasta soja, o kitos – modifikuota.
Foto: Regnum.ru


Jau 2000 metais 828 mokslininkai iš 84 valstybių pasirašė atvirą laišką visų šalių vyriausybėms apie GMO pavojingumą. Dabar tokių parašų jau du tūkstančiai. Mokslininkai reikalauja įvesti moratoriumą transgeniniam maistui.

Šaltinis: "Žalioji Lietuva"
**
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Standartinė ** Sek 2007 11 04, 0:29

Galite pasirašyti - paremti ES Komisaro aplinkosaugai S. Dimas pasiūlymą neįteisinti dviejų naujų GM kukurūzų rūšių komerciniam auginimui:

http://www.greenpeace.org/international ... s-on-maize
**
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Standartinė Laimis Ket 2007 11 08, 13:03

Išsamiausia informacija apie GMO lietuviškai yra čia:
http://gmo.lt
Statyba iš šiaudų briketų (kytkų):
http://blogas.lt/siaudunamai
Laimis
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 318
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:23

Standartinė Basta Pen 2007 12 28, 23:39

Peticija prieš GM ryžius Indijoje:
http://www.greenpeace.org/international ... ies-agains
Visi žinojo, kad to padaryti neįmanoma. Vienas to nežinojo, ir padarė atradimą. A. Enšteinas
Peace is lost when you desire anything, including peace.
Basta
Valdžia
 
Pranešimai: 1204
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:18
Miestas: Klaipėda

Standartinė ** Pir 2008 03 17, 1:56

Basta rašė:Nusiųskit atvirutę
Mr Stavros Dimas
Commissioner for the Environment
European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200
1040 Brussels
Belgium


Paremkit pasaulį be GMO
Plačiau čia
**
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Standartinė ** Ant 2008 04 29, 22:07

Greenpeace kampanija
ACTION ALERT
Historic Vote on GMOs

Dear friends,
An important vote on GMOs is due to take place on 7 May in Brussels. The agro-chemical industry wants to get EU permission to grow pesticide-producing maize plants and a GM potato that contains an antibiotic resistant gene. We want EU Commissioners to say NO when they discuss the applications on 7 May. Our petitions, postcards, emails, blog comments and actions have helped bring the EU to this historic moment. Now, this is it!

Can you join us in writing directly to all the European Commissioners this week?

The agro-chemical industry is already bombarding the Commission with lobbyists and messages. Greenpeace activists and campaigners are on the ground in Brussels, too. But with your voice, and your network of friends, we can deliver a louder, more direct message to Europe's top politicians.

We have contact details for all 27 European Commissioners, talking points you can use in your message to them, and links to further reading. The vast majority of EU citizens are opposed to GMOs, and emails direct from people who care ? in Europe, around the world ? can really work.

Please click here to take action.

Thank you for taking action before 7 May and for campaigning this far with us already.

We will keep you informed!

Everyone at Greenpeace International
**
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Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Standartinė Laimis Ant 2008 04 29, 22:12

Dėmesio!

Gegužės 7 dieną įvyks labai svarbus įvykis Briuselyje. Ten agro-chemijos industrijos atstovai norės gauti Europos Sąjungos leidimą auginti porą GMO augalų rūšių.

Kiekvieno turinčio internetą ir mokančio juo naudotis žmogaus pareiga yra išreikšti savo nuomonę.

Greenpeace prašo visų galinčių: "Parašykite raginimą ar prašymą tiesiogiai Europos komisarams, kad jie balsuotų prieš GMO gegužės 7 d. Briuselyje."

Komisarų sąrašas čia:

Laišką siųskite iš karto dviem adresais. Vieną kopiją komisarui, kitą kopiją adresu gmovote.int@greenpeace.org. Taip padaryta todėl, kad organizatoriai galėtų suskaičiuoti prašymus ir tuos skaičius galėtų panaudoti dar kartą kovoje prieš GMO.

Jeigu nesuprantate anglų kalbos, tai laiškus galite rašyti lietuvių kalba, nes ES institucijos privalo gerbti visas ES kalbas ir priimti laiškus parašytus bet kuria ES narės oficialia kalba.

Būtinai parašykite nors keletą laiškų, o geriausia visiems Eurokomisarams. GMO yra didžiulis blogis ir tam reikia užkirsti kelią.
Statyba iš šiaudų briketų (kytkų):
http://blogas.lt/siaudunamai
Laimis
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 318
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:23

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė Basta Pen 2008 05 09, 12:17

Žodžiu, 3 rūšių GM javai nebus komerciškai auginami ES.
Pirmąkart ES suabejojo GMO saugumu:
"Europos komisijos sprendimai priimami remiantis EFSA nuomone, kurią GMO priešininkai kaltina esant paremtą GMO industrijos duomenimis. Ji visuomet teigė, kad GM javai yra "saugūs"."

Dear friends,

Spread the good news! European Commissioners yesterday overturned the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) "safe to eat" verdict for three new GM crops -- two varieties of GM maize and one variety of GM potato.

This means the agro-chemical companies can't commercialize these crops in Europe for now. BASF's GM potato was only one European Union vote away from being released commercially. But the Commission has sent it to the back of the authorization queue.

For the first time, the Union's most senior lawmakers have publicly doubted the safety of GM crops. The EU Observer paper explains: "The European Commission normally adopts decisions based on the opinion of EFSA, which anti-GMO campaigners complain bases its investigations on data provided by the GM industry itself. It has always declared any GM crops it has studied to be safe."

We didn't get exactly what we wanted from today's meeting (i.e. EU decision to reject these GMOs outright), but public pressure and the weight of scientific opinion got us something that will send the agro-chemical industry and pro-GMO politicians reeling.

Anybody who knows the Commission can tell you: It wouldn't have happened without public pressure. All those postcards to Commissioner Dimas, emails to all the Commissioners, the petitions, the blog comments and the many actions these past six months -- they worked.

What's more, Wednesday's decision means that the EFSA's GM crop evaluation process is broken -- so sending GM crops back to the same body over and over isn't good enough. There's more to do clearly, but this decision is an historic milestone for the movement, and a stumbling block for the GMO industry.

Many of you have been putting pressure on the industry and politicians about GMOs for years, others joined in only weeks or months ago. It's been a pleasure and an honour to journey with you all. It'll be a while still before we're rid of GMOs for good, but we'll get there.

The European Commission is so opaque, we'll never know who voted what way. International, collective action can feel a bit like like that -- which is why it's so important to keep at it, keep sharing, and learning. Greenpeace can't do campaigns like this without financial support from 2.8 million people all over the world just like you. If you'd like to support our work with a donation, you can give now online.

Stay in touch, and spread the great news!

Best wishes,

Everyone at Greenpeace
Visi žinojo, kad to padaryti neįmanoma. Vienas to nežinojo, ir padarė atradimą. A. Enšteinas
Peace is lost when you desire anything, including peace.
Basta
Valdžia
 
Pranešimai: 1204
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:18
Miestas: Klaipėda

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė ** Sek 2008 11 09, 14:12

Esu užsisakiusi ISAAA.org naujienas ir maždaug kas savaitę gaunu jų naujienų rinkinuką. ISAAA misija, kaip dabar rašoma, yra “to contribute to poverty alleviation, by increasing crop productivity and income generation, particularly for resource-poor farmers, and to bring about a safer environment and more sustainable agricultural development”. Keista, prieš maždaug metus kai žiūrėjau, man labiausiai įstrigo idėja, kad jie siekia nepriklausomai informuoti ir pan. Todėl kiekvieną kartą kai skaitydavau naujienas, vis paburbėdavau mintyse :) apie tą jų “nepriklausomumą”, o iš tikrųjų gana stipriai jaučiamą šališkumą. Taigi, dabar peržvelgiau vėl jų misijas ir tapo aiškiau. Na ir tarp jų donorų yra ir didžiausios biotechnologijų kompanijos http://isaaa.org/inbrief/donors/default.asp
Taigi prisiruošiau apžvelgti tai, apie kokius augalus pasirodė pranešimų, kad jie modifikuoti arba norima modifikuoti (ar tiriamos galimybės).
Apžvelgiamas laikotarpis nuo 2007 spalio 26 iki 2008 lapkričio 7.


Pekanas (pekano riešutas)

USDA Releases New Pecan Variety
The US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS), in collaboration with the Kansas State University, released a new pecan variety called "Lakota".



Papaja

Monsanto and India's TNAU (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) to Develop PRSV-resistant Papaya
In response to a request from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) in India, Monsanto Company, USA, announced a royalty-free transfer of its Papaya Ring Spot Virus (PRSV) resistance technology to TNAU.
The technology has already been commercialized in the US and China, and is being used to develop biotech crops by several other nations around the world.


Biotech Papaya Safe for Soil Microbes
Biotech papaya with resistance to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed in Thailand years ago but commercial cultivation is not yet possible because of environmental and food safety concerns, in addition to the prevailing parliamentary discussion on biotech crop approval. To clarify the issue on environmental safety of PRSV-resistant papaya, especially on its effect in soil microbes, The Plant Genetic Engineering Unit (PGEU) of the Kasetsart University which developed transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya in Thailand, has conducted an environmental risk assessment of transgenic papayas on the total population and the possible horizontal transgene transfer in soil microbes in the area planted to transgenic papaya. Studies showed that there is no statistical difference in soil microbial populations in soils planted with non-transgenic and transgenic papayas. There is also no indication of the horizontal gene transfer of transgenic plant DNA to soil bacteria and fungi. These results suggest that transgenic papaya has no negative impact on soil microbes.


First Transgenic Papaya Genome Draft
A collaboration of research institutions from the United States and China has produced the first draft of the papaya genome. The draft, which spelled more than 90 percent of the plant's gene coding sequence, is also the first for a genetically modified plant. The researchers studied 'SunUp', a transgenic variety resistant to the papaya ring spot virus. Papaya is now the fifth angiosperm to have its genome sequenced, after Arabidopsis, rice, poplar and grape.
Detailed information on the precise location of transgenic modification in the plant is expected to help lower regulatory barriers in countries like Japan, where import of virus-resistant papaya is prohibited.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v4 ... 06856.html
http://www.news.uiuc.edu/news/08/0423papaya.html


GM Papaya Transgenes Remain Stable For Several Generations http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v26/n6/full/nbt0608-653.html


Emerging Threat to Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya
http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/1 ... -98-7-0848


GM Papaya with Improved Resistance to Mites
Researchers at the Hawaii Agriculture Research Center and the USDA-ARS Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center have reported that a transgenic papaya with a snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutin [GNA]) gene exhibited improved resistance to carmine spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus).
McCafferty and colleagues plan to further conduct experiments to test the resistance of the transgenic papaya plants to other pathogens and determine the impact of GNA-expressing papayas on the flora and fauna found in Hawaii.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.05.007.


Advances in the Development of Biotech Papaya Reviewed
Interest in biotech to address problems in papaya has not dwindled. Numerous researches on developing biotech papayas are occurring worldwide as presented by the group of Evelyn Mae Mendoza in one chapter of Biotechnology Annual Review. Among the objectives of these researches include development of varieties with resistance to pests and diseases including papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), mites and Phytophthora. Other groups are also exploring the development of aluminum and herbicide tolerance in papaya, those having fruits with long shelf life, and even the production of vaccines against tuberculosis and cysticercosis, an infectious animal disease.
Mendoza and colleagues stated that papaya is the first genetically modified tree and fruit crop and also the first transgenic crop developed by a public institution that has been commercialized. They note that at present about 14 countries are engaged, through collaborative activities or independent efforts, in the development of a biotech PRSV resistant papaya.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1387-2656(08)00019-7


Local Philippine Partners Get Updates on Biotech Papaya and Eggplant Projects
Potential partners for the field trials of biotech papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus and biotech eggplant resistant to fruit-and-shoot borer (Bt eggplant) participated in a series of familiarization activities aimed to enhance their knowledge on these crop biotech products.



Daržinės pupelės

Beans Suited for the Harsh Mediterranean
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are important source of dietary proteins. In the Mediterranean, however, common beans are incapable of growing because of poor soil and limited water. Researchers from the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the University of Frankfurt, developed new bean lines capable of tolerating the harsh Mediterranean environment.
These new lines are expected to increase bean yield in countries like Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia.



Lenktasėklė pupelė (Lima bean)

University of Delaware Researcher Builds Better Lima Bean
A University of Delaware Cooperative Extension researcher is conducting studies on how to improve lima bean. Emmalea Ernest is seeking to develop new varieties of lima beans that are flavorful, produce consistently high yields and are resistant to disease, especially downy mildew. Ernest is working on baby lima varieties that are resistant to the disease. Another goal of the study is to create high-quality, heat-tolerant Fordhook limas that will flourish despite Delaware's hot and humid summers. Fordhook limas are commonly grown in coastal California because temperatures are never excessively high. http://www.udel.edu/PR/UDaily/2009/jul/lima070308.html.



Pupos

African and Asian Countries Collaborate for Legume Project
Rich in nutrients, especially protein, and with high commercial potential, legumes hold great promise for fighting hunger, increasing income and improving soil fertility in many poverty stricken countries, especially in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa where they are considered as staples. A new project aimed at enhancing the productivity of certain legumes for improving food security and reducing poverty among smallholder farmers in Africa and Asia was initiated by 14 national agricultural research institutions from countries including Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Mali, Myanmar, Senegal and Zimbabwe.
The Tropical Legumes Project, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is a two-pronged project. The first prong, led by the Generation Challenge Program (GCP) of the Consultative Group on Agricultural Research (CGIAR), will focus on Sub-Saharan Africa and the development of beans, cowpeas, groundnuts and chickpeas. The second component focuses on large-scale breeding and seed multiplication and distribution. Led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) with the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), the second prong will also focus on soybean and pigeon pea development. In addition to equipping and supporting project scientists, the project will also 'plant seeds' by supporting Masteral and PhD students from selected regions of Africa and Asia.
http://www.icrisat.org/Media/2007/media21.htm



Bananai

Test-Tube Bananas Give New Hope to Philippine Farmers
The Philippines is the world's fourth top banana producer and the second largest exporter, with 2.3 million tons valued at around $404 million exported last year. Of the total area around the world, which is planted to banana, 9.38% is found in the Philippines. However, there has been significant reduction in the areas of banana cultivation in the country because of numerous pests, especially the banana bunchy top virus (BBTV). Infestation by the BBTV forced the farmers in Northern provinces of the Philippines to eradicate all their banana plants.
In 2004, the Department of Agrarian Reform and Isabela State University started the distribution of tissue culture-derived and disease-free banana to farmers. At first, farmers were apprehensive with the technology, since tissue culture plantlets are small and difficult to raise. But after the first planting season, farmers adopted the technology because of increase in yield. Using the disease-free and tissue-cultured banana plantlets has eradicated as much as 85% of the BBTV disease in Northern parts of the Philippines.


New Banana and Plantain Varieties for Africa
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has concluded the five year project to develop new banana and plantain varieties with increased yield and resistance to fungal pathogens and nematodes for farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. Scientists from the IITA also developed new methods for deploying the new cultivars in a way that preserves traditional varieties. The US $4 million project was funded by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research and the Belgian government.
http://www.iita.org/cms/details/news_de ... &zoneid=81


Economic Assessment of Banana Genetic Improvement in Africa
Transgenic bananas currently being developed by Uganda's National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) could have pro-poor impact. Using simulations of the economic benefits of different technology options, the current strategy endorsed by NARO, of combining conventional and transgenic approaches to mitigate the biotic pressures that cause major economic losses, is essential to sustain banana production systems.
http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/abstract/rr155.asp


Research Seeks to Identify More Productive Banana
Researchers from the Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) are developing high yielding banana varieties suited for the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado). Cerrado covers more than 20 percent of Brazil's surface. It is characterized by poor chemically-deficient soil and hot semi-humid climate.


GM Bananas Expressing Increased Nutrient Contents
Cavendish bananas modified to express increased provitamin A, vitamin E and iron content could be growing in North Australia by next year. Researchers from the Queensland University of Technology have submitted an application for the limited release of the GM bananas to Australia's Office of the Gene Technology Regulator. The transgenic banana lines contain the ferritin (iron storage) gene from wild soybean and genes from rice and Arabidopsis for increased vitamin E contents. Five enzyme-coding genes that mediate carotenoid (precursor of vitamin A) biosynthesis from maize, Arabidopsis, and the bacterium Erwinia will be tested. Up to 1,290 banana lines are proposed for release. The technology will be applied for improving banana varieties in Uganda and other parts of Africa, where nutrient deficiency, especially of vitamin A, are prevalent.


New Propagation Techniques Boost Ghana Banana-Plantain Production
Banana-Plantain, one of the staples in Ghana, was the focus of a food agriculture program of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in collaboration with other national science organizations. In the past two years, two million Musa seedings were distributed for planting in 1,300 hectares in Ghana. This US$2.5 million worth of seedlings was made possible through a micropropagation technigue developed by the IITA and other partner researchers, and is a part of the four year research program funded by the UK-based Gatsby Foundation. The plant distribution initiatives were spearheaded by Ghana-based organizations led by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Crop Research Institute (CSIR-CRI).
The Ghanaian banana producers comprising 4,000 local farmers have benefited from the said project. A study in 2005 showed that a 300,000 ha of banana plantation produced 2.8 million tons of bananas, valued at $710 million.
http://www.iita.org/cms/details/news_de ... &zoneid=81


Scientists in Uganda testing Black Sigatoka-resistant Bananas
Scientists at the Kawanda Research Institute in Uganda currently are testing a genetically modified banana that has been developed to be resistant to the Black Sigatoka Fungus. Currently, the only way to fight the disease is by applying massive doses of fungicides – a practice which proves to be more and more ineffective.
http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/news/355.docu.html


GM Banana in Uganda: Social Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions
Banana is a staple crop in Uganda.
Results of MISTICs estimation (maximum incremental social tolerable irreversible costs) indicate that in delaying the approval of a GM banana, Uganda foregoes potential annual benefits ranging approximately from US$179 million to US$365 million. Although GM bananas promise vast benefits, realization of those benefits, however, depends on consumers' perceptions and attitudes and the willingness to pay for the GM technology.
http://www.ifpri.org/pubs/dp/ifpridp00767.asp


Controlled Release of GM Banana in Australia
The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) has received an approval from Australia's Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR) for the limited and controlled release of up to 17 banana lines genetically modified for disease resistance. The release will take place in Cassowary Coast, Queensland on a maximum total area of 1.4 ha between July 2008 and April 2010.
None of the GM bananas will be used as food or animal feed as the trials only aim to conduct proof of concept experiments on their disease response.
http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/pu ... ir079-2007
http://www.news.qut.edu.au/cgi-bin/WebO ... ntID=21450



Špinatai


New Leafminer-Resistant Spinach Varieties
Researchers from the U.S. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have developed two varieties of spinach with impressive natural resistance to this insect. Compared to other methods, natural resistance offers an economical, effective and environmentally friendly way to battle leafminers. The new spinach plants, designated "03-04-09" and "03-04-63," is rated as the world's first spinach breeding lines with significant leafminer resistance. These parent plants serve as an invaluable source of resistance that can be bred into spinach types already popular with growers, home gardeners and shoppers.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2007/071009.htm



Miežiai

Scientists Identify Boron Tolerance Barley Gene
Scientists from the University of Adelaide in Australia have identified the gene in barley responsible for tolerance to extreme levels of boron. Scientists are now using molecular marker-assisted selection to introgress the gene into barley varieties with desirable agronomic properties.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/a ... /5855/1446


OGTR Oks Limited Release for GM Wheat and Barley
The University of Adelaide has been given the approval by the Australian Government's Office of the Gene Technology Regulator for the limited and controlled release of genetically modified (GM) wheat and barley. The modified traits are enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses, including soil boron and drought, and increased beta glucan levels. Beta glucan is a plant polysaccharide (carbohydrate) which forms part of the soluble fiber in cereal grains. The limited trial will be done in the Marion local council (Adelaide), South Australia from May 2008 to June 2009.


NABNet to Improve Barley Varieties for North Africa
The North Africa Biosciences Network (NABNet), one of the four networks of NEPAD/Biosciences Initiative, has started a project aimed at improving barley production in North Africa. Poor yield of barley in the area has been attributed to lack of drought and salinity tolerant cultivars. Although the available varieties in North Africa are mainly suitable for livestock consumption, people are increasingly eating them due to lack of better alternatives, the director of NABNet Prof Mohamed Elarbi noted. It was with this in mind that WABNet organized a meeting of experts in Tunisia recently to review progress of the project titled "Genetic improvement of nutritional quality and drought and salinity tolerance of North African barley germplasm" aimed at improving the crop. With funding from the Canadian International Development Agency, the NABNet Barley team agreed to seek collaboration from relevant regional and international organizations to undertake comprehensive genetic resources evaluation, physiological and biochemical characterization, biotechnological improvement and field assessment.



Morkos

GM Carrots Provide More Calcium
Genetically modified (GM) carrots developed by researchers in Texas A&M and Baylor College of Medicine were reported to provide more calcium. The group of Jay Harris reported that the GM carrots they developed contain almost twice as much calcium as regular carrots.
Harris and colleagues also demonstrated an alternative means of fortifying vegetables with bioavailable calcium. The improvement of bioavailable calcium in foods may lead to more calcium consumption in the diet. Their feeding studies conducted using mice and humans showed that the biotech carrot can highly increase calcium bioavailability, as much as 41 percent. This higher bioavailabilty was influenced by increasing the expression of a single plant calcium transporter, called sCAX1, leading to an improved plant calcium absorption.
http://www.bcm.edu/news/item.cfm?newsID=1044
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0709005105v1



Pakankamai nauja

Salotos

Calcium-Biofortified Lettuce
A group of researchers from the Kansas State University, Texas A&M University and Baylor College of Medicine in the U.S. successfully developed transgenic lettuce lines accumulating significantly higher levels of calcium.
The transgenic lettuce lines were found to contain 25 to 32 percent more calcium than their non-transgenic counterparts. They also exhibited fertility and robust growth in greenhouse conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panelists, the biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavor, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls.


Biofortified or Ordinary Lettuce - They Taste the Same
Once available in the market, is it possible to distinguish whether the lettuce in a hamburger sandwich is GM or not by taste alone? There is no difference in flavor, bitterness or crispness between calcium-biofortified lettuce and conventional lettuce.
Sensory analysis studies are important to determine efficacy of biofortified foods and an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/jour ... 4/abstract




Tuopos

GM Poplar for Phytoremediating Contaminated Waters
Scientists have known that plants can be used for the treatment of environmental pollutants. They can act as solar-powered pump-and-treat systems, capable of extracting water-soluble contaminants from polluted soils and metabolize or store them afterwards in specialized tissues. The process is known as phytoremediation. Although plants can be used to remove organic pollutants from soils, the activity is often too slow to be of practical use. Scientists are hoping to speed up phytoremediation through the introduction of genes that are known to be involved in metabolism of pollutants.
By introducing the mammalian gene coding for cytochrome P450 2E1, a group of US researchers have developed transgenic poplar trees with enhanced phytoremediation capabilities for removing and degrading pollutants like trichloroethylene (TCE), vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride from soil and ground water. Most of these compounds, known as carcinogens or neurotoxins, are widely used in industries and found their way into groundwater because of improper disposal. The GM poplar trees were also found to be capable of removing air pollutants like vinyl chloride, chloroform and benzene, substances usually used in petroleum and plastic processing. Because of the concerns that the GM trees might get into natural forests, the authors of the study believe that transgenic poplars may be a good choice. Poplars are fast growing and can grow for several years without flowering, at which time they could be harvested to prevent seeds from generating.
http://uwnews.washington.edu/ni/article ... leID=37313
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/0703276104v1
If approved by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the trials will be performed in a former oil storage facility in Indiana. http://news.uns.purdue.edu/x/2008a/0801 ... ysler.html


A poplar renaissance in Europe?
The fast-growing poplar provides renewable raw materials for the paper industry and is becoming increasingly important as a source of climate-friendly, low-cost fuel. http://www.gmo-safety.eu/en/wood/poplar/596.docu.html


Ir Lietuvoje kuriamos genetiškai modifikuotos drebulės
http://gmolt.wordpress.com/2007/10/28/l ... i-medziai/



Kininės pupuolės (Cowpeas)

UC to Research on Improved Cowpeas for Africa
A three-year grant of about $1.7 million was awarded to the University of California, Riverside by the Generation Challenge Program of the Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) to develop improved cowpea varieties for Africa using genomic technology.
Scientists will develop varieties that are drought tolerant and have improved resistance to pests and diseases. They will collaborate with African partners in the national breeding programs of Senegal, Burkina Faso, Cameroon as well as with the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Nigeria to identify genes linked to important traits such as tolerance to drought and resistance to pests.


Three Striga Resistant Cowpea Varieties Available for Africa
Striga (S. gesneroides), a plant parasitic weed or witchweed is the cause of more than 40% loss in annual cowpea yield in sub-Saharan Africa. A three-year study by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) resulted in the development of three new cowpea varieties with genetic resistance to Striga.
The research supported by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Generation Challenge Program (GCP) of The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, USA is a longstanding effort to alleviate infestations of cowpea by the parasite. The three new cowpea varieties and those which are under development will benefit the sub-Saharan countries Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin, and Cameroun.
http://www.iita.org/cms/details/news_de ... &zoneid=81



Žemės riešutai

ARS Releases Nematode, Virus Resistant Peanut Variety
The US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service (ARS) has released a new peanut variety that may help farmers in their fight against two major peanut problems. The new hybrid, Tifguard, is the first peanut variety to show resistance to both the peanut root knot nematode and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). These diseases severely limit peanut yield in the US, where annual production reaches well above one million tons.
Not only did Tifguard exhibit higher resistance to TSWV in field trials, it also produced higher yields than standard check cultivars when grown in areas with little or no nematode pressure. Tifguard seeds will be available to farmers by the 2009 planting season.



Cukranendrės

Biotech Sugarcane for Indonesia
Sugarcane consumption for food and beverage is projected to increase especially in the rural areas in Indonesia according to a study by the Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia. With the limiting land and water resources, the expected demand for sugar till 2010 of 3 million tons of sugarcane annually will be hardly met. To meet this challenge, Indonesian and German scientists developed a transgenic sugarcane that has greater sugarcane yield with minimum fertilizer requirement.
70 transgenic lines are now being evaluated in a field trial. The selected line will not be patented and will be made available to farmers.


Sugar Cane and Sorghum: Two Very Similar Genomes
A new finding by researchers from CIRAD (Centre Internationale de la Researche et Developpment) will facilitate sugarcane genomic work. This came about when CIRAD's researchers, who pioneered the exploitation of similar, simpler species such as rice and sorghum, recently confirmed the strong similarity of the sorghum and sugarcane genomes. The sorghum genome contains ten times fewer chromosomes than that of sugarcane and the complete sequence has been available since autumn 2007.
These results will make it easier to pinpoint useful agronomic and pest and disease resistance genes in the sugarcane genome, using the sorghum genomic sequence.
http://www.cirad.fr/en/actualite/communique.php?id=894


Improving Sucrose Synthesis in Indonesian Sugarcane
Increasing the capacity of sugarcane to produce sucrose was the aim of a research group from the University of Jember and Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia.
The researchers genetically engineered a sugarcane variety cvR579 to contain the cDNA of sugarcane sucrose phosphate synthase (SoSPS1) gene in its spindle leaves.
Production of sugarcane with increased sugar content in the spindle leaves would be a very important contribution in the development of food crops with usable biological mass for biofuel production.
http://journal.discoveryindonesia.com/i ... File/82/89


APCoAB Publication on Micropropagation of Sugarcane
The Asia-Pacific Consortium on Agricultural Biotechnology (APCoAB), a program of the Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions (APAARI), with funding support of FAO has released a publication entitled "Micropropagation for Quality Seed Production in Sugarcane in Asia and the Pacific". The report gives a step-by-step protocol for the production of disease-free planting material in sugarcane using meristem tip culture method. Field multiplication of in vitro raised plantlets aimed at reducing the farmer-level cost of seedlings is also detailed. Success stories of sugarcane micropropagation for seed production in India, Australia and the Philippines are recounted.
http://www.apcoab.org/documents/sugar_pub.pdf


Invitation to comment on release of GM sugarcane
Australia's Acting Gene Technology Regulator has prepared a consultation Risk Assessment and Risk Management Plan (RARMP), now open for comments, for the proposed release of genetically modified (GM) sugarcane. The University of Queensland has applied for a limited and controlled release to undertake research with up to 3000 sugarcane lines genetically modified for altered sugar production. The release is proposed to take place at fifteen sites in Queensland between 2008 and 2014. None of the GM plant materials from the trial will be used in human food or animal feed.


Monsanto Takes US$ 209 Million Foray into Sugarcane
Monsanto Company announced plans to acquire the sugar cane-breeding company Aly Participacoes Ltda., in a bid to tap the growing demand for raw sugar and biofuels. Monsanto agreed to pay US$ 290 million for the Brazil-based company, which operates CanaVialis S.A. and Alellyx S.A.
CanaVialis is the world's largest private sugarcane breeding company. Alellyx, on the other hand, is an applied genomics company that focuses on developing biotech traits primarily for sugarcane. Monsanto has previously established a licensing and trait-collaboration agreement with these companies to develop and commercialize Roundup Ready and Bt insect-protected technologies for sugarcane growers in Brazil.
"We expect the additions of CanaVialis and Alellyx will allow us to combine our breeding expertise with key large-acre crops with their breeding expertise in sugarcane. Our goal with this approach is to increase yields in sugarcane while reducing the amount of resources needed for this crop's cultivation, just as we're doing now for corn, soybeans and cotton," said Carl Casale, executive vice president of global strategy and operations for Monsanto. Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugarcane, the largest exporter of finished sugar, and the world's second-largest producer of ethanol after the United States.
http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=656



Tikrasis kajanas (Pigeon pea)

ICRISAT Releases World's First CMS Pigeonpea Hybrid
Pigeonpea is an important crop in India where it is grown on about 3.5 million hectares. The crop produces reasonable yields under unfavorable agro-ecological conditions making it suitable for rainfed agriculture. Recently, scientists from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) developed the world's first cytoplasmic male sterile pigeonpea hybrid. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is important in the hybrid seed industry, as it obviates the need for labor intensive hand emasculation (removal of anther or male gametes).
The high yielding and disease resistant hybrid, a result of 25 years of research, gives about 30-40% yield advantage over popular pigeonpea varieties. Hyderabad-based Pravardhan Seeds will market the hybrid under the brand 'Pushkal'.
http://www.icrisat.org/Media/2008/media11.htm



Spanguolės

New Cranberry Variety with Increased Antioxidants
Scientists from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have developed a new raspberry variety with higher anthocyanins levels compared to ordinary cultivars.
The next step is to produce a commercially acceptable cultivar for growers to use.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/080108.htm



Liucerna

US Seeks Comment on GM Alfalfa
The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is seeking public comment to shape the scope of an environmental impact statement (EIS) regarding the status of the genetically engineered (GE) Roundup Ready alfalfa. The EIS will be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of deregulating the GE alfalfa. APHIS has outlined important issues that will be addressed in the EIS. These include impacts on food and feed, U.S. trade and threatened and endangered species.



Baltasis dobilas

Limited Release of GM Clover in Australia
The Australian Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR) has received an application for the limited and controlled release of clover genetically modified to resist infection by the alfalfa mosaic virus from the Victorian Department of Primary Industries (DPI). The purpose of the trial is to conduct experiments to evaluate the agronomic performance, including seed yield, of the GM white clover line under field conditions. OGTR has prepared a Risk Assessment and Risk Management Plan (RARMP) for this application, which concludes that the proposed release poses negligible risks to people and the environment.
If approved, the trial will be conducted at one site in New South Wales, on a maximum area of 633 m2 from 2009 to 2011. DPI is bound to adopt certain measures to restrict the dissemination of GM plant materials, such as surrounding the trial site with a pollen trap and postharvest monitoring of fields.
http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/pu ... ir089-2008



Kava

Tissue Culture Innovations for Coffee Plantlet Production
Strategies to improve coffee plantlet production in vitro has been revolutionized by the Ecom Industrial Laboratory in Nicaragua in collaboration with the Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD). A million plantlets were produced in 2007 through tissue culture innovations using the Rita(r)-type bioreactors. The embryos are immersed in a nutrient solution for a few minutes a day up to a very advanced stage of germination. These then were tranferred to a newly developed horticultural substrate in the field. The direct transfer of plantlets to the field reduced the production costs, bypassing germination and plantlet growth in vitro.
Currently, there are 3500 bioreactors producing 250,000 pregerminated embryos a month which can be acclimatized directly to nursery conditions through weaning tunnels and acclimatization procedures. More than 70% of the germinated embryos grow into plants a few weeks after sowing.
Further studies are being conducted on how to synchronize embryo development in bioreactors and on guaranteeing that the regenerated in vitro plantlets are genetically true-to-type. The laboratory workers are now aiming to produce 2.4 million plantlets in 2008.
http://www.cirad.fr/en/actualite/communique.php?id=855



Braškės

GM Strawberries Tolerant to Salt Stress
A group of researchers from India successfully developed transgenic strawberry lines tolerant to salt stress.
The transgenic lines were found to be stable in successive generations. Compared to their non-GM counterparts, the transgenic lines were found to contain enhanced levels of proline (amino acid involved in osmotic stress response), chlorophyll and total soluble proteins. The growth pattern of the GM lines showed no abnormality, except that their growth rate is slower than other plants.
Nuoroda



Soros

Biodegradable Plastic Polymer from GM Switchgrass
Scientists from the US based company Metabolix Inc. have developed transgenic switchgrass accumulating high levels of the polymer polyhydroxybuterate (PHB). PHB, usually produced by microorganisms during stress conditions, has attracted attention because it has properties similar to the thermoplastic polymer polypropylene. Unlike polypropylene, PHB is biodegradable. Biodegradable plastics can significantly reduce petroleum consumption and may prove to be beneficial for the environment. The high cost of PHB production compared to plastics produced from petrochemicals, however, limits its widespread commercial use.
PHB production was monitored in more than 400 switchgrass transformants grown under in vitro and glasshouse conditions. The GM switchgrass accumulated as much as 3.72% dry weight of the polymer in leaf tissues and 1.23% dry weight of PHB in whole tillers. The study presents the first successful expression of a functional multigenic pathway in switchgrass.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 08.00350.x



Svidrė ? (Perenial Ryegrass)

Limited and Controlled Release of Perennial Rye Grass and Tall Fescue
An invitation to comment was released by the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator of Australia for the Victorian Department of Primary Industries application for a limited and controlled release of 500 perennial ryegrass and tall fescue lines, genetically modified for improved forage qualities. The field trial will be conducted to assess their agronomic performance and forage properties at one site in the shire of Southern Grampians, Victoria on a total area of up to 800 m2 between 2008 and 2010. Based on the prepared Risk Assessment and Risk Management Plant, the proposed release would pose negligible risk to human health and safety, or to the environment.



Svogūnas, česnakas, poras

NZ Applies for Field Evaluation of GM Onion, Garlic
New Zealand's Crop and Food Research (CFR) has applied to the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) to undertake a field evaluation of genetically modified (GM) onion, spring onion, garlic and leek.
The proposed new field evaluation site would be a maximum of 2.5 ha in size and would allow space for planting buffer zones of non-GM plant material as well as space to investigate new lines of plants with potentially improved agronomic and quality traits.
http://www.ermanz.govt.nz/news-events/a ... 80411.html


Onion Without the Tears
Can tears be far away when onions are sliced for a culinary treat? Senior scientist Dr. Colin Eady of New Zealand's Crop and Food Research (CFR) and his Japanese colleagues think that a "tearless onion" may be possible in the future through the use of gene-silencing technology.
"By shutting down the lachrymatory factor synthase gene, we have stopped valuable sulphur compounds being converted to the tearing agent, and instead made them available for redirection into compounds, some of which are known for their flavor and health properties," said Dr. Eady. While the idea of a 'tearless onion" is exciting, the scientist also noted that sustainable and efficient production would still be a major concern.



Baklažanas

Analysis of Potential Impacts of Bt Eggplant in India
Vijesh Krishna and Matin Qaim have concluded that the Bt eggplant technology can reduce insecticide applications and pest-related yield losses, thus increasing the productivity of eggplant production in India. The results of their study published in the journal Agricultural Economics used data from Bt eggplant multilocation field trials, as well as survey data from 360 eggplant farmers in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and West Bengal. The three Indian states together account for almost half of the total eggplant production in the country.
The researchers stated that the aggregate economic surplus gains of Bt eggplant hybrids could be around Rs. 4.9 billion (US$108 million) per year. About half of the overall gains will be captured by consumers through a projected decrease in eggplant prices. In addition, they have calculated that eggplant farmers will benefit from the Bt eggplant technology on expected health cost savings which are worth around Rs. 135-184 million (US$3-4 million) per year.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00290.x


Local Philippine Partners Get Updates on Biotech Papaya and Eggplant Projects
Potential partners for the field trials of biotech papaya resistant to papaya ringspot virus and biotech eggplant resistant to fruit-and-shoot borer (Bt eggplant) participated in a series of familiarization activities aimed to enhance their knowledge on these crop biotech products.


Brokoliai

Syngenta to Develop Heat-Tolerant Broccoli
Syngenta Seeds Inc. has teamed with California-based R&D Ag Inc. to develop heat-tolerant broccoli varieties. The agreement gives Syngenta a license for R&D Ag's patent on heat-tolerant broccoli. In addition, it will also provide Syngenta with research rights as well as exclusive, global marketing rights for joint broccoli hybrids that combine R&D Ag's heat tolerant germplasm with Syngenta-developed germplasm and technology.
Broccoli is a cool-weather crop restricted to specific geographical production regions and planting seasons. The development of heat-tolerant varieties may allow for expansion of the broccoli acreage, increasing options for growers. Syngenta anticipates the first commercial sales of these new broccoli hybrids in 2011.



Šilkmedis

GM Mulberry with Increased Salinity and Water Stress Tolerance
Mulberry is important for the sericulture industry in India. It is also being extensively used in agroforestry and horticulture programs. Development of mulberry varieties suitable for different agricultural and climatic conditions is important for maintaining the silk production industry in the country, which is the world's second largest. By inserting the gene hva1 from barley, plant biologists from the University of New Delhi successfully obtained mulberry trees with increased tolerance to salinity and dehydration stress.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/a2x ... 782d8&pi=6



Tabakas

Tobacco with Reduced Nornicotine by Targeted Mutation
By exposing the plants to the chemical mutagen EMS, a group of French scientists obtained tobacco harboring nonsense and missense mutations (resulting to proteins with incorrect amino acid composition) of the cytochrome P450 gene. The mutants obtained have very low to negligible nornicotine content. Backcrossing the mutants with an elite variety expressing reduced nornicotine (obtained in another study using traditional breeding) produced plants that are phenotypically identical to the parents. The low-nornicotine varieties obtained are therefore non-genetically modified, as it resulted from a combination of mutation and traditional breeding.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/p27 ... 0f8a7&pi=0


GM Tobacco Expressing Aprotinin
Aprotinin is a natural serine protease inhibitor used in medical procedures to lower inflammatory response and reduce blood loss associated with cardiac and liver surgery. This compound is also significant in preventing degradation of protein products in research and manufacturing processes and has been administered as a treatment for acute pancreatitis. Aprotinin was first identified in bovine lungs, but can also be obtained from recombinant yeasts.
Scientists from Bayer Bioscience in Belgium have developed transgenic tobacco plants expressing elevated levels of aprotinin.
The aprotinin obtained by the scientists was found to be biologically active, requiring minimal alteration before use.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 08.00321.x


High Salinity Tolerant Tobacco Expressing Recombinant TF
By modifying the expression of AtDREB1A, a gene coding for a DREB transcription factor, scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences have obtained transgenic tobacco with increased salinity tolerance.
The transgenic tobacco lines exhibited longer root length and higher chlorophyll content compared to control plants. During high salinity stress, the GM plants synthesized higher levels of soluble sugars. Soluble sugars are known to act as osmoprotectants during stress conditions.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2007.11.002


RNAi to Reduce Levels of a Key Carcinogen in Tobacco
Certain compounds produced by tobacco, like nitrosonornicotine and other nitrosamines, have been shown to be carcinogenic to laboratory animals, and possibly to humans. Nitrosonornicotine (NNN), a Grade 2B carcinogen, is produced by nitrosation of nornicotine (a nicotine by-product) during curing, aging, processing and smoking of tobacco. Nornicotine, on the other hand, has been implicated in increased risks for hypertension, lung cancer, and other respiratory and gastrointestinal pathologies. The recent identification of the major nicotine demethylase (key enzyme that converts nornicotine to NNN) gene has allowed the reduction of NNN content of cultivated tobacco using biotechnological approaches.
Using RNA interference, scientists from the University of Kentucky and North Carolina State University have developed tobacco lines exhibiting up to six-fold decrease in nornicotine and NNN content. Results of large-scale field trials showed that the GM lines are comparable to non-transgenic tobacco in terms of agronomic properties.
The same technology has been employed to reduce the levels of caffeine in coffee, gossypol in cotton, and linolenic acid in soybean.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 08.00324.x



Transgenic Tobacco Accumulating a High Level Polymer
Transgenic plants may be an economical means of producing novel feedstocks, such as biodegradable polymers, if limitations to product accumulation and expression of unwanted traits can be minimized. Plants producing polymers with important industrial, agricultural and medical applications, such as polyhydroxybutyrate and polyaminoacids, have been developed. Expressions of these polymers though were accompanied by limited fitness.
Scientists from University of Rostock and Humboldt University in Germany have developed transgenic tobacco producing cyanophycin, an amino acid polymer that is the only known non-protein nitrogen storage polymer in cyanobacteria. The researchers targeted the expression of a bacterial cyanophycin synthase gene in the chloroplast, to minimize the unwanted effects of polymer accumulation. The transgenic plants produced as much as 6.8 percent (dry weight) of cyanophycin, with minor or no stress symptoms. This is more than five-fold higher than the previously published value. Although all lines tested were fertile, the transgenic lines produced fewer seeds compared to control plants.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 07.00320.x


GM Tobacco Expressing Cervical Cancer Vaccine
Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in developing countries and the second most prevalent cancer in women. Almost all cervical cancers result from human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although vaccines against the virus, based on virus-like particles rather on attenuated HPV, have recently been made available, their high cost prohibits their widespread use especially in developing countries.
In search of ways that will make HPV vaccine production cheaper, scientists from Spain and France developed transgenic tobacco lines expressing the HPV protein L1. L1 is a major structural protein in the viral capsid (protein shell) that aggregates to form non-infectious virus-like particles (VLP). Since it can induce both humoral and cellular responses, VLPs are prime candidates in the production of HPV vaccines.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 08.00338.x


Functional Human IL13 from GM Tobacco
Interleukin 13 (IL13) is a regulatory cytokine (signaling protein) that plays a central role in mediating immune responses. It prevents excessive allergic inflammation in tissues by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory proteins such as tumor necrosis factors. IL13 has the potential to treat numerous human diseases such as type-1 diabetes, chronic arthritis and several types of cancer. It is also needed in providing host protection against gastrointestinal helminths. Recently, scientists showed that IL13 is effective in preventing Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) replication. Despite these promises, treatment of human diseases by IL13 may be limited by the unavailability of functional IL13 at a low cost. Currently, large scale production of IL13 is dependent on cell based expression systems. IL13 obtained using these systems must first be purified since both biologically active and inactive forms are produced. Isolation of functional IL13 increases the production cost.
In search of ways that will make its production cheaper, scientists from Canada developed transgenic tobacco lines expressing biologically active IL13. This is the first report of interleukin 13 production in plants. The team reported IL13 accumulation as high as 0.15 percent of the total soluble proteins in leaves. Simulated gastric and intestinal fluid digestion demonstrated the stability of the GM tobacco-derived cytokine.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pd ... 08.00337.x


Medicines Spring From Tobacco Plants
New hope for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients will spring from tobacco plants, after Bayer and its subsidiary Icon Genetics announced the development of a new production process that can be used to produce biotech drugs in tobacco plants. NHL is a malignant disorder affecting the lymphatic system. The objective of the new therapy is to activate the patient's immune system, enabling the malignant cells to be targeted and destroyed by the body's own defense system. The clinical phase for the biopharmaceutical could start in 2009.
"This project is intended to improve our chances of finding new therapies for life-threatening diseases by using drugs obtained with biotechnological methods," explained Dr. Wolfgang Plischke, a member of the Board of Management of Bayer AG whose responsibilities include innovation. "Not all cancers are the same. There are many types of tumor disease which have to be treated individually with specific active substances. The objective is to use this process to produce an individual drug for each patient."
The production of "personalized medicines" using biotechnology processes is an important research area. Proteins produced in tobacco plants can be obtained rapidly and in high yields, and this offers prospects for therapies which have previously been impracticable because of the length of time taken to produce them or their economic viability.


Scientists Map Tobacco Genome
Researchers from the North Carolina State University (NCSU) have completed the nearly five-year, $17.6 million effort to map the tobacco genome.
Tobacco's genetic blueprint will be important since the crop is widely used as a model in a wide range of plant studies, particularly in studies of solanaceous plants (tomato, eggplant, pepper, potato etc.).
http://news.ncsu.edu/news/2008/06/dctobaccogenome.php


GM Tobacco to Clean-up Soil and Groundwater Contaminant
Scientists from the University of York and University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom developed transgenic tobacco that can accumulate and 'detoxify' the haloalkane 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2- DCA). 1,2 DCA is used in the synthesis of vinyl chloride. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has listed the compound as a priority pollutant and probable human carcinogen.
The scientists inserted the bacterial genes dhlA and dhlB genes into the tobacco genome. The genes encode enzymes, typically lacking in plants, that have the ability to detoxify a range of halogenated aliphatics (such as 1,2-DCA). The authors pointed out that their findings represent a significant advance in the development of a low-cost, phytoremedial approach toward the clean-up of halogenated organic pollutants from contaminated soil and groundwater.
http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content ... 147/3/1192


Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Vaccine from GM Tobacco
Genetically modified tobacco can act as a speedy and safe antibiotic factory for personalized treatment against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, according to new findings from the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Plants are engineered to produce the specific antibody. In this case, Levy and his team infected the tobacco plants with modified tobacco mosaic virus carrying the antibody gene. When introduced to someone diagnosed with NHL, the plant-derived vaccine stimulates the patient's immune system to find and destroy the malignant cells.
In addition, the scientists found out that the way plants attach sugar molecules to the antibody, during biochemical processing, does not impair the immunogenicity or affect the safety of the vaccines. The study presents the first human tests of an injectable vaccine produced from plants.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2008/ ... 5.abstract
http://med.stanford.edu/news_releases/2 ... ccine.html


Insect Antifreeze Protein Confers Cold Tolerance in Tobacco
A group of scientists from Xianjiang University in China developed cold tolerant transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a beetle AFP. Low temperature is one of the limiting factors in the growth, productivity and distribution of plants. Higher yields could be achieved either by improving the freezing tolerance of a crop, or by increasing the survival of freezing sensitive plants following light frosts.
Compared with wild type tobacco, the transgenic plants preserved the integrity of their cell membrane when grown at -1°C for 3 days. The scientists are now looking for ways to introduce the gene into cold sensitive crops such as potato and tomato.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/c18 ... lltext.pdf or


GM Tobacco Detects Presence of Nitrogen Dioxide
Landmines or explosive devices in post-conflict zones in many parts of the world remain a threat to civilians. Scientists in South Africa are hoping that a genetically engineered tobacco plant can contribute to solving this problem by detecting the presence of nitrogen dioxide, a marker for landmines. They joined a team from the University of Stellenbosch and the Danish biotechnology firm, Aresa, that developed "RedDetect", a bio-sensor technology in a weed, Thale Cress.
The weed which changes color from green to red when it detects nitrogen dioxide leaching from mines buried in the soil, is too small to be seen from a safe distance. Hence, the tobacco plant is being studied as a more viable alternative using genetic engineering.
http://ecoworldly.com/2008/07/29/geneti ... landmines/


Insect-Resistant Tobacco Plants Harboring an Elderberry Gene
By inserting a gene coding for type-2 ribosome-inactivating protein (SNA-I') from elderberry (Sambucus nigra), scientists at the Ghent University in Belgium have developed transgenic tobacco lines resistant to several insect species including the beet armyworm and tobacco aphid.
In addition, significant increases in mortality were noted for insects fed on the transgenic lines as compared to wild type plants.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11248-008-9215-2



Paprika

KeyGene and ARS Partner for Pepper Research
KeyGene Inc. and the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service signed a cooperative research and development agreement to collaborate on the characterization of pepper germplasm with enhanced flavor. The three year collaboration will be based on an existing culinary pepper project developed by Dr. John Stommel and his colleagues at the ARS Genetic Improvement of Fruits and Vegetables Laboratory. The ARS pepper program has successfully utilized diverse Capsicum germplasm resources to breed award winning pepper cultivars. KeyGene will apply its fingerprinting technology to identify the pepper accessions to develop bell pepper cultivars with improved taste characteristics.
http://www.keygene.com/keygene/pdf/PR%2 ... rtment.pdf



Batatai (saldžiosios bulvės)

Priorities for Sweet Potato Research in Developing Countries
More than 95 percent of the global sweet potato crop is cultivated in developing countries. The humble crop, often underrated, is packed with vitamin A and carbohydrates. It is a staple food for impoverished countries in Africa, South America and Asia. Despite its promises as a superstar crop, sweet potato has received little attention for crop improvement. A study conducted by the International Potato Center (CIP) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) identified priorities for sweet potato improvement in developing countries.
http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/cgi ... 42/5/1200/


Sweet Potato Out-yields Corn in Ethanol Production Study
In search of alternative biofuel feedstocks, scientists of the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) reported the suitability of sweet potatoes grown in Maryland and tropical cassava in Alabama as biofuel feedstocks. The sweet potato yielded carbohydrate comparable to the lower limit produced by sugarcane, the highest yielding ethanol crop. Sweet potato and cassava also require less fertilizer and pesticide than corn. Once the economical harvesting and processing techniques are developed, the data suggests that these crops have greater potential than corn as ethanol sources.


RNA Silencing-Mediated Resistance to a Crinivirus in Sweet Potato
Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) is one of the most destructive pathogens of sweet potato. SPCSV can reduce sweet potato yields by 50 percent. It can also cause various synergistic disease complexes when co-infecting with other viruses, including sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV). Scientists from the International Potato Center, University of Helsinki and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences developed genetically modified sweet potato varieties with increased resistance to SPCSV.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2008.00480.x
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Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė ** Sek 2008 11 09, 14:13

tęsinys

Brassica ? (tokie kaip brokoliai, kalafiorai, rapsai, kopūstai ir garstyčios)

Genes Identified to Protect Brassicas from TuMV
Brassica species, like broccoli, cauliflower, rape, cabbage and mustard, are susceptible to the Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV). TuMV causes plant leaf discoloration and necrosis which may result to huge economic losses for farmers . A new way of breeding TuMV-resistant brassicas was described by scientists from the University of Warwick and John Innes Center (UK).
John Walsh, the research group leader said "By breeding these genes into commercial varieties of the crop, using conventional techniques, breeders can protect them from attack. But most importantly, we have identified broad-spectrum resistance provided by a number of genes. This means we potentially have the means to develop brassicas, such as broccoli, that will be robust enough to prevent the virus mutating to overcome the resistance."
http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/ ... 88/11/3177


China and Australia Collaborate to Produce Super Brassicas
Scientists from the Zhejiang and Huazhong University in China and University of Western Australia (UWA) will collaborate to produce new brassica varieties for increased oil seeds and vegetable production.
China is one of the world's top rapeseed producer with about 13 million metric ton produced in 2005.
The researchers will focus on the development of stress-resistant and high yielding brassica varieties. They are also looking into the possibility of obtaining hybrids resistant to the blackleg and white rust disease, diseases that seriously affect brassica cultivation worldwide.



Kopūstai

Expression of a Bt Gene in Cabbage Chloroplasts
Genetic modification of plants via chloroplast transformation has recently become an established technology for crop improvement.
A group of scientists from Taiwan has successfully transferred the Cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. Expression of the Bt protein was detected in the range of 5 to 11 percent of the total soluble protein in leaves of the transgenic lines. The transformed lines exhibited increased resistance to diamond back moth larvae. The establishment of a plastid transformation system in cabbage offers new possibilities for genetic improvement and biological control in brassica crops.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/k03 ... 73b04&pi=0



Sorgas

WABNet to improve Sorghum Breeding in West Africa
The West Africa Biosciences Network (WABNet), one of the NEPAD Biosciences initiatives in Africa, has put in place plans to improve sorghum breeding in West Africa in particular and Africa in general. At a recent workshop held in Dakar, Senegal, an implementation plan was drawn and resources were allocated to various laboratories to work on the inventory and characterization of West Africa sorghum genetic resources. This will be funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) as part of its funding for the Africa Biosciences Initiatives.


Praj Joins ICRISAT's Sweet Sorghum Consortium
Praj Industries signed a memorandum of agreement (MOA) with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) to become a member of the institute's Sweet Sorghum Ethanol Research Consortium (SSERC). Praj Industries, based on Pune, is a biofuels technology company with a number of ethanol and biodiesel production plants to its credit. Under the MOA, Praj could use ICRISAT's sweet sorghum research outputs, like testing of sweet sorghum varieties and hybrids and improvement of sweet sorghum farming systems.
ICRISAT Director-General, William Dar, said that the partnership will go a long way in enhancing the commercialization of sweet sorghum for bioethanol production globally.
http://www.icrisat.org/Media/2007/media27.htm

Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has developed sweet sorghum varieties with increased sugar contents in their stalk. Some varieties give 42 percent higher sugar yield. Aside from sweet sorghum, ICRISAT is also promoting the cultivation of Pongamia and Jatropha in marginal lands as a source of biodiesel.
http://www.icrisat.org/Media/2008/media3.htm
http://www.icrisat.org/Media/2008/media6.htm


Bacterial Fermentation of Sweet Sorghum for Ethanol Production
Recognizing the potential of sweet sorghum for the bio- ethanol production, a research team at Khon Kaen University, Thailand has reported an attempt to examine the capability of sweet sorghum to produce ethanol using Zymomonas mobilis. This bacterium used sweet sorghum stem juice as a carbon source for fermentation in batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentations.
http://safetybio.agri.kps.ku.ac.th/imag ... orghum.pdf


Striga-Resistant Sorghum Varieties for Africa
Scientists from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Kenya have successfully identified and transferred genes that confer resistance to the parasitic weed Striga using marker-assisted selection. Also known as witchweed, Striga infests some 50 million hectares of cereal crops, specifically maize, sorghum and millet and costs Africa some US $7 billion crop loss annually.


KSU Scientists Develop Herbicide-Resistant Sorghum
Weed management is one of the biggest concerns for grain sorghum producers, but Kansas State University scientists are finding ways to remedy the problem. Kassim Al-Khatib, KSU professor of weed physiology, and his colleagues have developed a herbicide-resistant grain sorghum line. The sorghum line is tolerant to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides such as Steadfast, Accent, Resolve, and Ally.
The team involved in the project is also working with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's program for Minor Use Pesticides as well as to register the use of Steadfast herbicide on ALS-resistant sorghum.
http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/news/story/briefs090408.aspx


South Africa Approves Biofortified Sorghum Trials
The South African government has approved the green house trials of sorghum genetically modified to contain increased levels of essential amino acids, particularly lysine, increased levels of Vitamins A and E, and more available iron and zinc.
The nod to conduct the trials was given to the South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), one of the key scientific contributors to the Africa Biofortified Sorghum (ABS) Project. The Project brings together seven African and two US organizations including Africa Harvest, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF), University of Pretoria, University of California Berkeley and DuPont. ABS has received funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation to develop nutritionally enhanced sorghum for the arid and semi-arid tropical areas in the continent.
http://ntww1.csir.co.za/plsql/ptl0002/P ... NO=7522063



Kakava

Scientists to Begin Unlocking the Cocoa Genetic Code
The US Agricultural Research Service, International Business Machine (IBM) and the US confectionery company Mars have launched a five-year project to sequence the cocoa genome. According to the companies, the research could benefit over 6.5 million farmers around the world. Insights from the cocoa genome could enable scientists to develop cocoa crops with higher yields, pest and disease resistance, and increased water and nutrient use efficiency.
Mars will be funding the research and IBM will be using its supercomputers to analyze the cocoa genome. The research results will be freely available through the Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA), which supports agricultural innovation for both humanitarian and small-scale commercial purposes.
Compared to other major crops such as corn, wheat and rice, cocoa has been the subject of little agricultural research. Hardier cocoa varieties may help protect an important social, economic and environmental driver in Africa, where around 70 percent of the world's cocoa is produced.
http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/press ... /24523.wss
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/080626.htm


Revitalizing Liberia's Cocoa Sector
The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) is implementing a flagship program to help Liberia get its cocoa industry back on track. Through the Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP), IITA and its partners are re-energizing the country's cocoa sector by building the capacity of farmers and providing them with high-quality planting materials. Liberia's cocoa industry has suffered a major blow because of the country's civil war of 1989-2003, shrinking production by more than 50 percent. IITA estimates that improving cocoa production would benefit some 30,000 farm families, or 150,000 of Liberia's 3.1 million people.
"Since its inception in 2006, the program has directly trained almost 7000 farmers on integrated crop pests and quality management (ICPQM) and responsible social behavior through the farmers' field schools (FFS) methodology," said STCP-Liberia Program Manager MacArthur Pay-Bayee. In addition to training, farmers receive seedlings of improved cocoa varieties from Cote d'Ivoire-based National de Recherché Agronomique (CNRA). These varieties are high-yielding, disease-resistant and early-maturing - producing fruits within three years if the recommended agronomic practices are followed.
http://www.iita.org/cms/details/news_de ... &zoneid=81



Plūdena

Scientists to Sequence Duckweed Genome
A group of scientists from Rutgers University is obsessed with duckweed, an aquatic species akin to the world's smallest flowering plant. They are convinced with the duckweed's potential for cleaning up wastes in the environment, sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and producing biofuels. The Rutgers researchers, together with colleagues from the Kyoto University, University of Jena and Oregon State University, have secured funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to sequence the plant's genome.
Duckweed, according to researchers, has the ability to cleanse agricultural and municipal wastewater by accumulating nitrogen, phosphate and heavy metal pollutants. The plant is an ideal feedstock for biofuel production. Duckweed can produce biomass faster than any other flowering plant, and their carbohydrate content can readily be converted to fermentable sugars using widely available enzymes for corn-based ethanol production.
http://news.rutgers.edu/medrel/news-rel ... u-20080707



Obuoliai

GM Apple with Scab Resistance
A study conducted by scientists from the Wageningen University in the Netherlands showed that the use genetically modified apples can result to a more sustainable cultivation. The apples express a barley transgene that protect them from scab, one of the most damaging fungal diseases in the apple industry. Results of a five year field trial showed that the GM trees had 60 percent less damage from the fungus. Less pesticide is therefore required to keep the trees pathogen free.



Citrusiniai

Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Citrus
Genetic transformation has become a very effective tool in improving crops by incorporating genes for better agronomic characteristics, resistance to pests and diseases, and increased nutritional and food quality.
Genetic transformation of citrus genotypes has been difficult due to low-efficiencies and presence of non-transformable varieties.
A research team from Udayana University and Gajah Mada University in Indonesia attempted to genetically transform citrus through Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Internodal stem segments from citrus seedlings were cultured and inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring binary Ti plasmid vector that contained the genes for detectable marker ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and the selectable marker NptII. Results showed that shoots can be regenerated in media with 100 μg/ml kanamycin, and about 10 % of them contain the gusA gene. Some of the GUS+shoots were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.



Kiviai

Scientists Release Kiwi Fruit DNA Sequences
Researchers from New Zealand-based companies HortResearch and Genesis Research and Development Corporation Limited announced that they would complete the public release of the world's most extensive collection of kiwi fruit DNA sequences. The genetic data will allow fruit breeders develop new kiwi varieties with improved diseases resistance and increased health properties.
http://www.hortresearch.co.nz/index/news/508
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/9/351



Vynuogės

GM Grapevine with Increased Resveratrol
A group of Chinese scientists have successful obtained transgenic grapevine accumulating elevated amounts of resveratrol. The team introduced the gene STS from a Chinese wild grape variety. STS codes for stilbene synthase, an enzyme necessary for resveratrol biosynthesis. The resveratrol content of the transgenic plants was found to be almost six times higher than that of their non-transformed counterparts. The researchers are now monitoring the resistance of the transformed plants to several pathogens.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/256 ... c6ffd&pi=1


Scientists Embark on Grapevine Fingerprint Quest
According to US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientist Mallikarjuna Aradhya, ARS is expecting the completion of its grapevine sequencing project next year. Nearly all of the 2,800 wild, rare and domesticated grape varieties in a genebank in northern California will have their genetic profile taken. These genetic profiles will help grape breeders pinpoint unusual characteristics, such as increased anthocyanin and resveratrol levels, which might appeal to shoppers in tomorrow's supermarkets.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/080826.htm


Scientists: GM Grape could Revitalize Midwest Wine Industry
Scientists from the University of Illinois have developed a new grape variety resistant to the popular herbicide 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic or 2, 4-D. The new variety, named Improved Chancellor, harbors a bacterial gene that allows them to metabolize the herbicide. Normally, 2, 4-D is lethal to most grape varieties even at concentrations 1/100th of the amount used to kill broadleaf weeds.
Because the new grape is genetically modified, it has not been tested outside the greenhouse yet. The researchers hope to get permission to grow them in an isolation plot outdoors by spring 2009.
http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/news/stories/news4528.html



Alyvpalmė (Oil Palm)

First Draft of Oil Palm Genome Completed
Synthetic Genomics Inc. and Asiatic Centre for Genome Technology (ACGT) announced that they have completed the first draft assembly and annotation of the oil palm genome. They have also made progress in sequencing and analyzing the jatropha genome.
Once the sequencing and analysis of the oil palm genome is completed, this will become the reference genome.
http://www.syntheticgenomics.com/press/2008-05-21.htm



Palmyrah ?

Biotech Research for Profitable Cultivation of Palm Trees
Researchers at India's Centre for Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) have used biotechnology to achieve a breakthrough in distinguishing between male and female palmyrah plants in the nursery. The palms are slow growing perennial and have no distinguishing features to identify the sex until flowering, which is usually after 12 to 15 years. Using the molecular marker technology, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, DNA segments linked to sex determination in dioecious palmyrah were identified.
Palmyrah produces sweet sap from the inflorescence, toddy, palm sugar, brush fibre and wood, irrespective of whether the palms are male or female. However, differences in their yield or quality have been reported and female palms are supposed to yield more toddy on tapping from the inflorescence, and gives better and harder timber than male tree, thus more expensive. In addtion, a great majority of its economic products such as immature endosperm, mesocarp pulp, tuberous seedlings are obtained only from female palms. It is therefore important to have an early identification of female plants in plantation development.
http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/oct252007/1075.pdf



Garstyčios

Bt Indian Mustard as Trap Crop for DBM
Aside from the commercial value of plants expressing the Bt gene, they can also be used as a bait in the biocontrol strategy of trap cropping. Trap crop strategies offer ways to eliminate/minimize pesticide use and preserve natural enemies of crop pests while increasing or maintaining crop yield. A trap plant is used to lure pests away from the main crop. The Indian mustard has been tested for use as a trap crop for protection of cabbage from the diamondback moth (DBM). Scientists from the Cornell University constructed "dead-end" trap crops by introducing the cry1 Bt genes to Indian mustard. DBM has a higher ovipositional preference for Indian mustard as compared to cabbage (ratio >11). Insect bioassays indicated that both the cry1C and cry1Ac plants were toxic to susceptible DBM. In addition for its use as a trap crop, Bt Indian mustard could also be useful for direct control of lepidopteran pests, if deployed as a commercial crop.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/817 ... 7e44d&pi=0


Green Mustard as a Source of White Rust Resistance Gene
Scientists from the University of Western Australia and Western Australia's Department of Agriculture and Food have identified important sources of resistance to white rust in green mustard germplasm sourced from India, China and Australia. White rust is a serious infection, caused by the protist Albugo candida, affecting the members of the cabbage family. It is estimated that white rust reduces yield in oilseed brassicas (like rapeseed, canola, etc.) by 20 percent in Australia and more than 60 percent in India.
Of the 44 green mustard genotypes screened, about 20 varieties have shown varying resistance to white rust. The genotypes from China showed the best resistance, whereas those from India were found to be the most susceptible.


Biofortified Mustard Can Reduce VAD Prevalence in India
The report "Closing India's Nutrition Gap: The Role of Golden Mustard in Fighting Vitamin A Deficiency" concludes that biofortification strategies can be a cost-effective way to reach severely vitamin A-deficient households and can play an important role as part of a broader approach to reduce VAD prevalence in India. Golden Mustard, a vitamin A biofortified mustard, is being studied for its potential role in addressing a major problem in India which causes blindness, compromises immunity, and increases mortality especially among young children and pregnant and lactating women.
Supplementation, traditional fortification and food-based approaches are relatively unsuccessful. Although Vitamin A supplementation is more cost-effective, fortification and biofortification have greater reach and have the potential to avert a substantially greater VAD disease burden.


India Develops Mustard Hybrid
Scientists of the National Research Centre on Rapeseed-Mustard in Bharatpur, Rajasthan, India have developed a hybrid of Indian mustard through heterosis breeding using the moricandia cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system. Considered an important milestone in Brassica research in the country, the hybrid is named NRC Sankar sarson (NRCHB 506).
Dr. K. H. Singh, senior scientist and key breeder, said the hybrid has shown superior oil yield by a margin of about 26, and 20 percent over existing popular varieties of the region in 11 trials across 5 states. This hybrid is of medium maturity duration (133 days), medium in height (190 cm) and has 40.6 per cent high oil content. It has shown wide adaptability. Dr. Arvind Kumar, Director of the Mustard Center, under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, added that mustard is the second most important oilseed crop in the country and is expected to contribute to self sufficiency in the edible oils.
http://www.icar.org.in/news/mustard_hybrid.htm



Manijokas

Wild Cassava Relatives as Source of Stress-Resistance Genes
Scientists from the Brazilian Agriculture Research Corporation (EMBRAPA) have shown that wild cassava species harbor several stress and pathogen resistance genes. A project, in collaboration with the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), now aims to transfer these genes to commercial cassava varieties. Led by Alfredo Cunha Alves, the scientists have started to identify molecular markers that will be used to transfer the resistance traits to high yielding cultivars. They are also starting the cytogenic characterization of the wild varieties. New stress-resistant cassava varieties are expected to be developed before the project ends in 2010. Scientists from CIAT have previously obtained cassava varieties resistant to the mealybug and whitefly by marker assisted selection.


Scientists Construct Cassava cDNA Library
Cassava is a plant species known for its remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses like drought and salinity. It is the third largest source of carbohydrates for human food in the world, and an important staple food for Africa. There is also a growing interest in using cassava as a biomass source for fuel production. Because of the crop's complex genetic makeup and long growth cycle, traditional approach in breeding new cassava varieties has met little success. The use of biotechnology to improve cassava cultivars is a more straightforward strategy. Knowledge on the background of stress-related genes will be indispensable for biotech approaches, like marker-assisted breeding and direct transformation.
Scientists from Japan and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Colombia have constructed a full-length cDNA library of cassava plants under normal, heat, drought, aluminum and post harvest physiological deterioration conditions. CDNA libraries are collection of clones containing complementary DNA (DNA constructed from mRNAs) often intended to represent the genes that are expressed within a given cell or tissue type at a given period. The cassava cDNA library is expected to propel research in cassava improvement for high yield under abiotic stress, providing full sequences of stress-responsive genes and expanding the gene catalog of this species.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pd ... 9-7-66.pdf


Complete Cassava Chloroplast Genome Sequenced
Cassava is the major source of dietary energy for more than 500 million people, mostly from the developing world. It is also being valued as a raw material for manufacturing starch and livestock feed. Based on recent estimates, cassava is planted on more than 16 million hectares of land, 50 percent accounted for by Africa. Because of its importance, it is necessary that the genetic basis of stress and disease resistance in cassava be fully elucidated.
A group of researchers from the United States has produced the crop's complete chloroplast genome sequence.
The availability of the cassava chloroplast genome may facilitate the development of pathogen and herbicide resistant and drought tolerant cassava varieties through plastid transformation.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/403 ... d16bf&pi=5


Ethanol Production from Cassava Chips in Thailand
Due to the economic and energy crisis in Thailand, the National Ethanol Policy has launched the E10 (10% anhydrous ethanol substitution with benzene) plan. This plan will require a daily production of 2 million liters of ethanol. At this production scale, concern is raised regarding the tremendous amount of raw materials needed. The current production of cassava roots is about 20 million tons and around 80-90% roots are consumed by two major industries, namely starch and chip/pellet industries. It also provide root surplus for ethanol production at 2 million liters/day. A research team at Kasetsart University found out that dried chips are the most suitable raw material for ethanol production. The production cost and time can be minimized through the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process. These processes have been used routinely in bioethanol production of cereal grains.
http://safetybio.agri.kps.ku.ac.th/imag ... _chips.pdf


Partnership to Enhance Cassava Production in Thailand
The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) will partner with the Thai Tapioca Development Institute (TTDI) to develop cassava varieties that will enable smallholder farmers in Thailand to produce more income. Cassava is the third most important food crop, after rice and maize, in Southeast Asia. Yet, it receives little attention from the scientific community at large. CIAT and TTDI aim to fill this research gap by developing high-yielding and high-starch containing cassava varieties suited to growing conditions in the country. They will also work to facilitate the adoption of new cassava varieties as well as agronomic techniques for the benefit of farming communities.
CIAT has recently worked with partners in Thailand, where average cassava yields increased by 53 percent (14 tons to 21 tons per ha) from 1994 to 2006. Currently, 98 percent of the varieties planted in the country consists of cassava developed from the CIAT germplasm. To improve capacity to identify other useful traits in cassava, CIAT will also offer training to Thai scientists, including faculty and students of Kasetsart University in Bangkok.
http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/newsroom/release_29.htm


Uganda Puts Up Biotech Center for Cassava
A cassava biotech capacity project has been launched as a collaborative venture between scientists of the National Crops Resources Research Institute in Uganda and the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), through its Agro-biodiversity and Biotechnology Program.
Research is currently being done to duplicate efforts made by scientists at the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center (DDPSC) in the United States where they introduced a genetically modified gene in a cassava plant that confers resistance to Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD). Results are promising. Cassava is the most consumed crop in East and Central Africa and is noted for its ability to thrive in marginal conditions.
http://africasciencenews.org/asns/index ... 3&Itemid=2


FAO Calls for Increased Investment in Cassava Research
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) called for more research into the tropical root crop cassava as a way to help poor countries threatened by spiraling food and oil prices.
At present, the average cassava yields are barely 20 percent of those obtained under optimum conditions. Despite growing demand and its production potential, the crop is grown mainly in areas that have little or no access to improved varieties, fertilizer and other production inputs, by small scale farmers often cut off from marketing channels and agro-processing industries.
Members of GCP21 agreed on a number of new projects to realize the crop's full potential in addressing the global food and energy crisis. The projects include establishment of a cassava chain delivery system to channel technical advances to poor farmers, improvement in soil fertility, enhancement of basic scientific knowledge of the crop, including genomics, and training for the next generation of cassava researchers in developing countries.
http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/200 ... index.html


Uganda Constructs Modern Cassava Transformation Lab
Construction of a modern cassava transformation laboratory has started at Uganda's Namulonge Crop Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) with funding from the US Agency for International Development and administered by the Association of Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), and the Danforth Plant Science Center at St. Louis, USA. The new lab will be used to develop two new cassava varieties named Ebwan Aterac and Aladu by Ugandan scientists led by Dr. Yona Baguma, an agricultural scientist and molecular biologist with NaCRRI. He estimates that research, development, trials and commercial release of the disease resistant varieties will take a minimum of five years.
Other countries in the region that are participating in the cassava transformation programme are Kenya and Tanzania.


Genome-Wide Analysis of the Cassava Transcriptome
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a tropical crop plant widely cultivated for its thick starchy roots. In Thailand, cassava ranks as one of the most important economic crops along with rice, rubber tree and sugar cane. The inadequate knowledge of the genetic regulatory networks governing the biosynthesis of starch is a major obstacle in post-harvest modification of cassava starch.
A collaborative research effort between Thailand's BIOTEC and Japan's Nara Institute of Science and Technology is to establish a large cassava EST collection. The information garnered from the EST repertoire would help gain preliminary insights into the state and flux of the cassava transcriptome under various circumstances known to influence the starch metabolism in plants. After thorough analysis of the database, non-redundant EST sequences would be selected and used in the fabrication of cassava microarray chips for global analysis of the cassava transcriptome. It is expected that many novel and important genes involved in several vital traits, e.g. the starch quality and quantity, could be identified from this research effort.
http://www.safetybio.agri.kps.ku.ac.th/ ... &Itemid=47


Feasibility Study of Small Scale Ethanol Production from Cassava in Thailand
Mahidol University in Thailand studied the feasibility of a small scale ethanol plant producing gasohol additive. The economic feasibility was investigated by net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), benefit-cost ratio (B/C ratio) and payback period. Financial analysis suggested that the project was worth pursuing and had a fair ability to make a profit. Overall however, the small scale ethanol plant did not seem a suitable option in the country as part of the national energy program.
http://www.safetybio.agri.kps.ku.ac.th/ ... &Itemid=47


IITA Develops New Drought-Tolerant Cassava
A new cassava variety, TMS92/0067, developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture in Nigeria has been found to be well adapted to the dry or drought-prone areas in the semi-arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, farmers are expected to enjoy 6-10 times better yields.
IITA says the new variety was widely tested in farmers' fields in Burkina Faso and the Chad in West Africa, and in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in Central Africa. The variety demonstrated high resistance to several diseases such as the Cassava Bacterial Blight (CBB) and Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD). The variety also has excellent hosting qualities to Typhlodromalus aripo, an effective biological control agent of the cassava green mite.
http://www.iita.org/cms/details/news_fe ... zoneid=342



Žirneliai

Sowing a Future for Peas
Discovering what will make peas survive drought stress is the aim of a project being conducted at the John Innes Centre and the Central Science Laboratory. Using NMR spectroscopy, researcher Dr. Claire Domoney of the John Innes Centre produced a profile of the levels of all the different small molecules or metabolites in pea plant leaves. This "metabolome" was compared with that from plants subjected to controlled drought stress. As expected, several key plant metabolites were increased under drought stress - maybe the key to its survival in drought stress. In addition, the metabolome change may also be manifested in the taste and flavor of peas as well as its capacity to fix soil nitrogen.
http://www.jic.ac.uk/corporate/media-an ... eypeas.htm



Eraičinas

Identification of a Phytotoxic Amino Acid from Fescue Grasses
Allelopathy refers to the process by which certain plants release phytotoxic chemicals to prevent the growth of other plants nearby. Fescue grasses are known to exhibit allelopathy by releasing large quantities of an aqueous root exudate in the soil rhizosphere. A group of scientists from the Boyce Thompson Institute identified the non-protein amino acid meta-tyrosine as the major component of the grasses' phytotoxic exudate.
Since there is an increasing concern over the use of synthetic herbicides, the researchers hope that the identification of m-tyrosine will contribute to the development of new approaches in weed management systems.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/104/43/16964


GM Lawn Grass with More Digestible Cell Wall
Plant cell walls are composed of several carbohydrate chains like cellulose and hemicellulose. These polymers are cross-linked by the compound lignin, conferring mechanical strength to the cell wall. Such cross-links hinder cell wall degradation by ruminant microbes and thus reducing plant digestibility. Scientists from UK's Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research obtained fescue grasses with increased cell wall digestibility by introducing a fungal gene that disrupts lignin polymer formation. The gene encodes a fungal enzyme which when expressed causes the disassembly of lignin chains. Heat shock and senescence promoters (regulatory DNA sequences) were used for the targeted expression of the gene. Using the strategy, fescue and other grass species can be utilized for fodder or cellulosic ethanol production.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/ab ... 07.00317.x


Limited and Controlled Release of Perennial Rye Grass and Tall Fescue
An invitation to comment was released by the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator of Australia for the Victorian Department of Primary Industries application for a limited and controlled release of 500 perennial ryegrass and tall fescue lines, genetically modified for improved forage qualities. The field trial will be conducted to assess their agronomic performance and forage properties at one site in the shire of Southern Grampians, Victoria on a total area of up to 800 m2 between 2008 and 2010.



Companies to Develop Nitrogen Use Efficient Lawn Grass
Two companies, Arcadia Biosciences, Inc and the Scotts Company LLC, recently announced a research agreement for the development of nitrogen use efficient (NUE) turf grass varieties. NUE grasses consume less nitrogen and do not require frequent application of fertilizers. With an estimated 40 million acres of managed turf grass in the United States alone, lawn grass is the world's most cultivated non-agricultural plant.
http://www.arcadiabio.com/media/pr/0026.pdf


Glyphosate-Resistant Johnson Grass Confirmed in Two Locations
A group of scientists from the University of Arkansas and a separate group from the Missisipi State University have confirmed cases of Johnson grass resistance to glyphosate in their respective states. Investigations with the Monsanto researchers were conducted during the past few months in greenhouse conditions which will be followed by an extensive field study this season.
http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=580



Tiriamos
Pušys

Unlocking the Genetic Basis of Pine Tree Defense
Scientists from the University of British Colombia have made an interesting discovery on the genetic secrets that enable conifers (pine trees and spruce) to ward off herbivores and pathogens.
The scientists demonstrated how neofunctionalization can result from relatively minor changes in protein sequence to increasing the diversity of plant compounds. The neofunctionalization hypothesis asserts that after gene duplication, one gene retains the ancestral function whereas the other acquires a new function, therefore leading to increase in diversity of products.
The discovery made by the researchers may open the way to developing new trees that can fight insects like the mountain pine beetles, which has caused billions of dollars losses in conifer-based forest economies.
http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0709466105v1



Samana liksnelė (Physcomitrella patens)

First Moss Genome Decoded
A group of international scientists from more than 40 institutions have successfully completed the first genome sequence for a nonvascular land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. Moss belongs to a group of plants called bryophytes. Bryophytes lack specialized tissues for circulating fluids. They neither flower nor produce seeds, but propagate via spores. Because of these features, scientists believe that bryophytes are the ancestors of angiosperms (flowering plants).
By comparing the moss genome from that of angiosperms and unicellular algae, the scientists gained valuable insights about plant evolution. The sequence revealed genomic changes related to the evolutionary movement of plants to land.
Since the moss genome is much simpler compared to genomes of angiosperms, scientists can study the molecular mechanisms involved in important plant physiological processes like cell wall synthesis and assembly. In addition, scientists can also target and delete specific moss genes and study their functions in important crop processes.
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/1150646
http://www.jgi.doe.gov/News/news_12_13_07.html



Arbūzai

Researchers Identify Cause of Watermelon Vine Decline

Researchers from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) have identified the organism that causes the disease called watermelon vine decline (WVD). WVD, first seen in Florida in 2003, causes an estimated annual yield loss of $25 to $ 50 million dollars. Yield losses totaled to more than $60 million in 2005. Symptoms of the disease include necrosis or browning of the fruit rind, rapid vine collapse and death just before harvest.
Led by Scott Adkins, the group determined that the novel ipomovirus, squash vein yellowing virus, is the WVD causel agent. The squash vein yellowing virus was found to be limited to the Cucurbitaceae family, with the most dramatic symptoms occurring on squash and watermelon. WVD is transmitted from plants to plants by the silverleaf whitefly. So far, WVD has been limited to Florida, but growers fear that it may spread to any place that watermelon is commercially grown. Screening of watermelon germplasm for resistance to squash vein yellowing virus in greenhouse trials yielded promising results.



Saulėgrąžos

Australian Sunflower Genes Could Fortify U.S. Sunflowers
A team from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been collecting seeds from wild sunflowers growing in Australia. Their goal is to search for disease resistance genes in Australian wild flowers and incorporate these genes in sunflower hybrids growing in America.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/m ... er0508.htm


New Genetic Trait in Sunflowers from BASF, Nidera
A new genetic trait for CLEARFIELD sunflowers will be made available in 2010, thanks to a long-term joint development program between BASF and Nidera, a leading sunflower breeding company. CLHA-Plus, the new gene, makes it easier for seed companies to breed tolerance to BASF imidazolinone herbicides in high-yielding sunflower hybrids. It also provides expanded weed control options and enhanced tolerance to CLEARFIELD herbicides for sunflower growers. Weed control is often one of the most limiting factors for global sunflower production.
http://www.corporate.basf.com/en/presse ... CTZubcp1hp



Dažinis dygminas

Safflower-Produced Insulin Nears Human Clinical Trials in US
SemBioSys Genetics Inc. recently announced that it has submitted an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for safflower-produced recombinant human insulin to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An IND is necessary for a new drug's early preclinical development. "All of our studies to date confirm that our safflower-produced insulin is equivalent to pharmaceutical-grade human insulin. We met our internal schedule to submit the IND and we are on track to begin human clinical trials in the fourth quarter of 2008 as planned," said Andrew Baum, president and chief executive officer of SemBioSys.
The company also intends to submit a Clinical Trial Application (CTA) to the appropriate European authorities later this quarter. Assuming approval of the CTA, SemBioSys plans to conduct a Phase I/II trial in the UK.
http://micro.newswire.ca/release.cgi?rk ... -0&Start=0



Dažinis braivėlis (Jatropha curcas)

Malaysia Eyes Jatropha As Biofuel Source
Sabah Land Development Board (SLDB) has drawn a scheme to cultivate a biofuel crop Jatropha curcas on a commercial basis. Sabah is a Malaysian state located in the Borneo island. SLDB's immediate plans are to cultivate trees in 10 hectares of land together with Malaysia-India partners Borneo Alam Ria Biomatrix (Sabah) Sdn Bhd to ensure sufficient seedlings as well as to efficiently transfer the technology. Jatropha curcas is native to Central America and the Caribbean and its seeds yield a non-edible oil, utilized to make biodiesel fuel. It is believed that commercial planting of Jatropha could help eradicate poverty in Sabah as people in the interior can work on six-acre plots of land provided by SLDB and earn at least US450 a month.
The project is a joint-venture between the SLDB and three foreign companies from Japan, Korea and the United States and is part of the Sabah Development Corporation. The venture will involve investments of RM320 million (US97mil) by Nihon Biotech of Japan, TKM Korea Biofuels Resources and local-based American company Kelana Stabil Sdn Bhd.


Novel Stress Tolerance Gene From Jatropha
Extreme environmental conditions like low water availability, extremely high and low temperatures and high salinity restrict plant productivity. During stress, plants produce numerous compounds to protect themselves. One such compound is glycinebetaine (GB). It maintains protein and membrane integrity during drought conditions by acting as an osmoprotectant. GB is widespread in angiosperms (flowering plants), where they contribute to salt tolerance by maintaining cell turgor pressure and protecting the photosynthetic machineries.
Scientists from the Sichuan University in China identified the gene JcBd1 that codes for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (key enzyme in GB biosynthesis) from the shrub Jatropha curcas, which is implicated in adaptation to environmental stress. Jatropha has recently attracted attention as its seeds are being used as a raw material for biodiesels. E. coli strains functionally expressing JcBd1 show increased resistance to abiotic stressors like increased salt concentration. JcBD1 might be a good candidate for engineering the GB synthesis pathway in plants. This may pave the way for the development of varieties tolerant to extreme environmental conditions.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.01.018



Cukriniai runkeliai

Stable Plastid Transformation in Sugarbeet
Plastid engineering offers several advantages compared to traditional transgenic technologies, such as high protein expression levels, transgene containment, multi-gene expression in a single transcriptional unit and absence of position effects and gene silencing. In higher plants, however, plastid transformation has been routinely obtained only in tobacco.
Scientists from the Italian National Research Council reported the first stable plastid transformation in sugarbeet. The researchers used the biolistic technique to integrate the aadA and gfp transgenes in the beet plastome. Transplastomic sugarbeets may solve problems related to the outcrossing of genetically modified varieties, conventional varieties and wild relatives. Sugarbeet is well known to inter-cross easily with its wild cousin, the seabeet or with annual weed beets that occur in the field.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/e1x ... 3e74d&pi=0


Germany's KWS Completes Trials of GM Sugarbeets
KWS Saat Ag (KWS), an agriculture company based in Germany, has completed research trials in six locations of genetically modified (GM) sugarbeets which are tolerant to the herbicide Roundup Ready ®. The trials were done to test the genetically modified sugarbeets in different environments in Germany and their effects on the agroecosystem. Questions on the agronomic and phenotypic features as well as the mechanism of action of the integrated gene were dealt with as well as the effects on non-target organisms such as insects. Cultivation of the GM sugarbeets in the EU is projected by 2015 at the earliest.



Graikinis riešutas

Walnut Genetic Research
Genetic markers have been proven to be a useful instrument by breeders to improve crops. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and University of California-Davis colleagues have embarked on a research to identify genetic markers to study the genetic make-up of the walnut tree. Using genetic markers, plumpness of the kernel, maturity, and disease resistance can be identified early in the seedlings, thus saving valuable time since the walnut tree takes several years to bear marketable nuts. The markers will also be valuable in profiling the genetic makeup of the more than 1,600 walnut trees in the nation's official walnut collection in Davis, California which the lead ARS geneticist of the project Mallikarjuna Aradhya is managing.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/080919.htm



Kviečiai

The Need for 'Rust Proof' Wheat
According to an FAO report, the increasing international wheat price which started in June, has peaked in the previous months as a response to record low levels of stocks and sustained demands. To make the matters worse, a new stem rust strain, Ug99-first discovered in Uganda in 1999, is on a worldwide march. The rust, which also threatens barley, has jumped the Red Sea, from East Africa to Yemen and is currently positioned to move on to Egypt, the Middle East and Mainland Asia. Scientists from the US are now on guard against the stem rust, as the spores of this fungal disease could reach the continent sooner or later.
Researchers from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS) are screening wheat collections and currently grown US varieties for resistance to the Ug99 rust strain.
Preliminary studies show that Ug99 had overcome most of the resistance genes deployed in wheat cultivars, including the widely used Sr24 gene. ARS is now partnering with U.S. breeders through the National Wheat and Barley Improvement Committees, to develop breeder-friendly DNA markers to locate genes effective against Ug99.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/n ... at1107.htm


CWB in Search for Wheat's Molecular "Fingerprint"
The Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) is eyeing wheat fingerprinting as the replacement for Canada's grain identification system when the existing kernel visual distinguishability (KVD) process is phased out after 2010. CWB invested more than $1.3 million into the development of the "black box" technology to identify varieties using wave-length measurements from molecular signals. In addition, a $1.7 million dollar investment was made to help Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Cereal Research Centre develop DNA-based varietal identification. The combination of molecular profiling and wavelength measurement is expected to allow a wheat "fingerprinting" system that is quick and affordable for farmers and grain handlers.
CWB is one of the largest wheat and barley marketers in the world.
http://www.cwb.ca/public/en/newsroom/re ... 111507.jsp


ARS Set to Release New Disease-Resistant Wheat
The US Agricultural Research Service (ARS) will release a new wheat variety resistant to the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). The new variety, called Mace, harbors the gene Wsm-1, which confers resistance to the virus.
WSMV is spread by the wheat curl mite. Previous attempts to control the insect vector, by applying pesticides, proved to be unsuccessful. In the Great Plains (states like Oklahoma, Kansas, North Dakota, etc.), annual WSMV outbreaks reduce wheat yield by as much as five percent.
In field trials, Mace produced grain yields comparable to commercial varieties. In virus infected fields, however, the new variety's yield surpassed the commercial varieties' produce by two to three times.


OGTR Oks Limited Release for GM Wheat and Barley
The University of Adelaide has been given the approval by the Australian Government's Office of the Gene Technology Regulator for the limited and controlled release of genetically modified (GM) wheat and barley. The modified traits are enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses, including soil boron and drought, and increased beta glucan levels. The limited trial will be done in the Marion local council (Adelaide), South Australia from May 2008 to June 2009.


The Power of Three: Wheat Trigenomic Chromosome
Scientists from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Sydney University, and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) have combined the resistance genes from three different grass species to develop the first 'trigenomic' chromosome. The trigenomic chromosome can now be used to breed disease-resistant wheat varieties.
Scientists are now looking for ways to apply their discovery to other crops like corn, rice and soybean.
http://www.csiro.au/news/DiseaseBeatingWheat.html
http://www.springerlink.com/content/6g1 ... eb551&pi=6


WSU Receives Grant to Develop Gluten Free Wheat
The United States' National Institute of Health (NIH) has awarded Washington State University (WSU) a four-year $837,000 grant to develop novel wheat varieties that are free of gluten proteins. Gluten triggers inappropriate immune system responses in people affected with Celiac Disease. This genetic disease can create symptoms that range from diarrhea and cramps to nutrient malabsorption and malnutrition. One in every 100 or 200 Americans or 4 percent of Europeans are estimated to suffer from gluten intolerance. The only effective treatment is a lifelong gluten-free diet. Adherence to such diet is difficult, since gluten is also being used as a filler and binder in many non-food items such as medicines, vitamins and paper adhesives.
**
Taryba
 
Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė ** Sek 2008 11 09, 14:13

tęsinys

Klasika, tik dar kažkodėl neauginama labai plačiai -

Pomidorai

GM Tomato with Improved Antioxidant Activity and Zinc Content
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cg ... 09707.html


Purple Tomatoes, Coming to a Plate Near You...
Tomatoes with skin as dark as blackberries? They don't just look good, they might actually be good for your health. Researchers from the John Innes Center in the U.K. have developed transgenic tomatoes accumulating high levels of anthocyanins.
Anthocyanins are red-purple pigments found naturally at high levels in grapes, blood orange, red cabbage and eggplant peel. The pigments are much studied for their health benefits, including their roles as antioxidants. Recent studies show that anthocyanins can offer protection against cardiovascular ailments, degenerative diseases and certain types of cancer.
http://www.seedquest.com/News/releases/ ... /24091.htm


GM Tomato Producing Functional Human Antitrypsin
GM plants hold a promising alternative for production of pharmaceutical proteins. Compared to other systems, the use of GM plants offers advantages like the feasibility of low-cost and large-scale production and reduced risk of contamination with human pathogens. A wide array of plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins has been developed to treat diseases such as lymphoma, and cystic fibrosis.
Scientists from the Indian National Botanical Research Institute have developed transgenic tomato lines producing a functional human alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) protein. AAT is the most common serine protease inhibitor in the human plasma. Deficiency in AAT results to diseases like liver cancer, pulmonary emphysema, arthritis and dermatitis. Previous efforts to source AAT from transgenic bacteria, yeast cells and animals proved to be unsuccessful. The AAT derived from these hosts were either unstable, biologically inactive or mixed with immunogenic impurities.
The transgenes were found to be stably expressed in successive generations. AAT from the GM tomato lines exhibited high specific activity. On the average, 195 milligram of AAT can be obtained per kilogram of tomato leaves.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/053 ... f690a&pi=2


Transgenic Tomatoes Resistant to Cutworm
Scientists from the Suranaree University of Technology in Thailand and Louisiana State University have developed transgenic tomato lines with increased resistance to the common cutworm.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.01.006


GM Tomatoes may Prevent Alzheimer's Disease
Genetically modified tomatoes can be a suitable carrier for an oral vaccine against Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a group of researchers from Korea.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/637 ... lltext.pdf


Scientists Locate 'Large-Fruit' Gene in Tomato
Ripe, round, red, large tomatoes: they are perhaps the best known icon of summer. Most people are unaware, however, that this fruit was not always so robust. Selective breeding for thousand of years has resulted to the tomatoes we know today. Wild-type type tomatoes are often small, round berries but today's domesticated plants produce the large, round tomatoes commonly found on the store shelf.
Scientists at Cornell University, led by Steven Tanksley, have pinpointed the exact location of the 'large fruit' gene in the tomato genome. The team identified mutations responsible for the evolution of large fruit by examining the sequence of the 'small-fruit' allele and the 'large-fruit' allele. Tanksley believes this study is the first step towards reconstructing events that led to the domestication of fruit development. The mechanisms identified through this study will also be applied to other agriculturally important solanum species, such as pepper, eggplant, and potato.
http://www.csrees.usda.gov/newsroom/imp ... omato.html



Bulvės

New Findings May Help Fight Blackleg and Softrot Potato Disease
Researchers from the University of Cambridge made a discovery into the genetics of Erwinia carotovora, the bacterium that causes the economically damaging potato blackleg and soft rot disease. Funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), the study shows that Erwinia mutants incapable of expressing the gene relA were also impaired in their ability to damage potatoes and cause disease. relA helps the bacterium recognize when nutrient levels in the cell are getting low. It also activates the release of enzymes that can destroy plant cell wall. The discovery could lead to new ways to fight the disease that causes significant yield loss worldwide.
http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/189/21/7643


GM Potato with Tolerance to Multiple Stresses
A group of Korean scientists successfully obtained transgenic potato lines exhibiting tolerance to multiple oxidative stresses by modifying the expression of the antioxidant genes.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/w30 ... e0667&pi=0


Pepper Gene Enhances Potato Stress Tolerance
Scientists from the Plant Genome Research Center and Seoul National University in Korea showed that overexpression of the pepper ERF gene CaPF1 effectively enhanced tolerance to freezing, heat, heavy metal, and oxidative stress in potatoes. The team also observed that CaPF1 was involved in tuber formation. Microtuber formation was significantly retarded in lines overexpressing the transgene. The results of the study suggest that future research using various transcription factors, particularly ethylene responsive factors, to improve stress tolerance in potato may result in development of high-yielding crops.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/957 ... 51e4e&pi=0


Notification to Field Test GM potato in Germany
A notification report has been published for the field trials of genetically modified (GM) potato by the University of Rostock, Germany. The field trial is designed to determine the frost and the frost reaction of Cyanophycin-producing plants; influence of the winter season on rotting of the GM potatoes; the potential accumulation of cyanophycin in the soil; and the influence of rotting of cyanophycin-producing potatoes in soil microbes.
http://gmoinfo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gmp_rep ... /DE/08/196



Ryžiai

Supercomputer May Help Develop Super-rice
Amidst concerns of global food shortage, the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) and the University of Washington (UW) are teaming up for a project that may pave the way for the development of hardier rice varieties that would produce more nutritious grains. Through its World Community Grid, IBM will tap unused computing power from more than one million personal computers to run a three-dimensional modeling software developed by UW scientists to study rice proteins. Knowledge of the proteins' 3D structure will be essential in pinpointing which ones could provide protection against pests and diseases and help rice produce more grains. The project's end product will be a comprehensive map of the 30,000 to 60,000 rice proteins and their functions.
The grid has an estimated processing power of 167 teraflops, equivalent to one of the top three supercomputers in the world. With access to the Grid, researchers could generate results in less than two years, instead of the 200 years that would be required to complete the mammoth task.
http://uwnews.org/article.asp?articleID=41700


Stem Borer-resistant Javanica Rice cv Rojolele in Indonesia
Rice is consumed by more than 90 percent of the Indonesian population. Rice breeders in Indonesia have been attempting to improve tropical japonicas. New varieties based on tropical japonica germplasm are being explored as a new frontier for increasing the yield potential of rice. Rojolele, one of the cultivars of javanica rice plants produces good yield, but its resistance to diseases and insects should be improved as well as its grain quality.
Researchers at the Research Centre for Biotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences did research on transformation of Rojolele using a binary vector containing a cry1B gene under the control of wound inducible promoter.



Fine Tuning Enzymes to Produce Fruits with More Flavors
By manipulating the expression of two enzymes, scientists from the University of Texas say that they can develop fruits and vegetables with improved flavors and crops with enhanced pest resistance. The enzymes-allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL)-produce jasmonate (responsible for the unique scent of jasmine flowers) and green leaf volatiles (GLV), respectively. Plants produce jasmonate and GLVs to ward-off predators. These compounds also confer characteristic aromas to fruits and vegetables.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/va ... 07307.html
http://publicaffairs.uth.tmc.edu/Media/ ... flavor.htm


Na ir pabaigai

Philippines May Turn to GM Trees to Save its Forests
The Philippines may soon plant genetically modified trees to save the country's remaining forests and meet the local timber, pulp and paper demands, said biotechnology experts from the Department of Agriculture. Addressing scientists, representatives of the government and biosafety policy and regulatory bodies during the seminar on forest biotechnology, the experts urged the government to be prepared for the introduction of disease resistant GM trees to Philippine forests.
The experts debunked the present fears with GM trees, saying that forest modification is safe based on studies conducted elsewhere. GM trees, for reforestation purposes, are currently being developed in countries like the US and Australia. The Forest Management Bureau of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) welcomes the use of GM trees, as it may hold the solution for the country to meet its increasing timber requirements.
**
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Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė ** Pen 2008 11 14, 17:41

Take action for a GMO-free Europe
http://www.greenpeace.org/international ... ampaign=ge

Laimis Žmuida rašė:Lietuviška versija:
http://www.blogas.lt/ekologija/441797/s ... urime.html
**
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Pranešimai: 355
Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:34

Re: Akcijos ir straipsniai apie GMO

Standartinė Basta Ant 2008 12 02, 22:04

Tai labai svarbu! Parašykite tiesioginį elektroninį laišką dėl genetiškai modifikuotų organizmų (GMO), pareikškite savo nuomonę, kad nenorite mutantų! Kaip ir kur rašyti, apibūdinta čia: http://www.greenpeace.org/international ... e-directly
Liko nedaug laiko!
Visi žinojo, kad to padaryti neįmanoma. Vienas to nežinojo, ir padarė atradimą. A. Enšteinas
Peace is lost when you desire anything, including peace.
Basta
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Užsiregistravo: Ant 2006 06 13, 18:18
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